These disorders affect learning in individuals who

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These disorders affect learning in individuals who otherwise demonstrate at least average abilities essential for thinking or reasoning -Learning disabilities are seen to be related to delinquent behaviour since LD is not the same thing as learning difficulty; rather it is a disability that involves learning andthought processes that are deficient -ADHD children are said to have difficulty concentrating, which affects their ability to learn and behave in an otherwise normal manner-ADHD is 9X more likely to be found in delinquent children-Psychosocial factors that reduced the likelihood of involvement in delinquency for both LD and ADHD youth; relationship with mother, engagement with school, feelings of well-being, and feelings of being victimized
Explaining biological facts-Researchers adopted a positivistic orientation to explanation, which meant they were trying to find ways in which the people they were observing differed from non-criminals or non-delinquents-Poverty is something that may affect both one’s IQ and criminal behaviour -Living a life of extreme poverty and deprivation cannot help but cause a person to have a measurably lower intelligence quotient than a person who has lived an enriched lifestyle, and poverty puts one at greater risk for criminal justice processing-The major problem with early biological explanations of criminal behaviour is that they failed to account for environmental impacts on behaviour and, in so doing, overestimated the biological impact on behaviour-There is no evidence that genetic factors are important in pre-pubertal delinquency as a classPsychological PositivismPsychological theories did not develop until the 20thcentury Some of the psychological theories stress environmental impacts on the formation of antisocial characteristics oPsychoanalytic TheoriesChapter 3: The “Facts” of Youth CrimeIntroductionThe meaning of the term “youth crime” must be formalized – it cannot be accurately measured or counted without an exact definition of the termConcept: a general or abstract term that refers to a class or group of more specific terms(ex; “crime” refers to any number of specific behaviours)-All concepts must be defined before they can be measured with any accuracy or reliability The concept “young offender” has not been defined in a consistent mannerMeasuring Youth CrimeThe most common source of info on youth crime for many people is the mediaSocial-control agencies: usually government agencies mandated to perform various functions in the justice system, such as police, courts, and correctional institutionsField research: a method in which research is conducted outside of a laboratory, in the setting where the behaviour of interest is occurringThe two most common types of surveys are victimization surveys, which ask people if they have been victimized, and self-report surveys, which ask about a person’s involvement in criminal and delinquent activitiesWhat we think we know about youth crime will depend on which source has been used

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