Categorizing Knowledge Knowledge as both means and end existing knowledge

Categorizing knowledge knowledge as both means and

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Categorizing Knowledge Knowledge as both means and end: existing knowledge guides new learning —the scaffold that supports the construction of all future learning General knowledge vs. Domain-specific knowledge: General : applies to a variety of situations Domain-specific : relates to particular task or subject Also categorize knowledge by how it s manifested Declarative knowledge : can be declared, usually in words Procedural knowledge : knowing how to do something—knowledge that is demonstrated Self-regulatory : knowing when and why to apply declarative and procedural knowledge W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
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Information-Processing Model Early views had the analogy between mind and computer: information stored in three storage systems Sensory memory : holding system that maintains stimuli so that perceptual analysis can occur Working memory : (short-term memory) holds 5-9 bits of info at a time for up to 20 seconds Long-term memory : stores huge amounts of info for long periods of time; may be coded verbally or visually or both Memory = reconstruction: leads to accurate, partly accurate, or inaccurate recall; accurate retrieval depends partly on how info was learned. A more recent view of memory and cognition is called cognitive science , which emphasizes the role of working memory, attention, sensory memory, and interactions of the elements of the system. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
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Sensory Memory Sensory memory = the initial system that briefly holds stimuli we perceive through our senses; other names for sensory memory are sensory buffer , iconic buffer (for images), and echoic memory for sounds. We attend to some stimuli and not to others—this attention is first step in learning. A challenge to teachers is to structure classroom environment to get and keep student attention at outset of lesson and keep them focused throughout the class. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
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Working Memory Working memory defined: where new information is held briefly and combined with knowledge from long-term memory. Resembles screen of computer—content is activated information, in-the- moment consciousness. Capacity = 5-9 separate new items at once or the amount of info we can rehearse in about 1.5 seconds Recent theories: two working memory systems—one for language-based information, one for nonverbal, spatial, visual information Duration of info in working memory is short: 5-20 seconds. Easily overwhelmed if cognitive load (especially extraneous load) is too great. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
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Retaining Info in Working Memory Use it or lose it: if info in working memory is not activated, it fades Most people engage in specific strategies to keep it Rehearsal : 2 types Maintenance rehearsal — repeating information in your mind Elaborative rehearsal — associating the info with something you already know (info in long-term memory) Not only improves working memory, but also helps channel info from short- to long-term memory Chunking : group or chunk individual bits of information into meaningful units (size doesn’t matter, # of bits does) W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
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