Categorizing Knowledge • Knowledge as both means and end: existing knowledge guides new learning —the “ scaffold that supports the construction of all future learning ” • General knowledge vs. Domain-specific knowledge: – General : applies to a variety of situations – Domain-specific : relates to particular task or subject • Also categorize knowledge by how it ’ s manifested – Declarative knowledge : can be declared, usually in words – Procedural knowledge : “ knowing how ” to do something—knowledge that is demonstrated – Self-regulatory : “ knowing when and why ” to apply declarative and procedural knowledge W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Information-Processing Model • Early views had the analogy between mind and computer: information stored in three storage systems – Sensory memory : holding system that maintains stimuli so that perceptual analysis can occur – Working memory : (short-term memory) holds 5-9 bits of info at a time for up to 20 seconds – Long-term memory : stores huge amounts of info for long periods of time; may be coded verbally or visually or both • Memory = reconstruction: leads to accurate, partly accurate, or inaccurate recall; accurate retrieval depends partly on how info was learned. • A more recent view of memory and cognition is called cognitive science , which emphasizes the role of working memory, attention, sensory memory, and interactions of the elements of the system. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Sensory Memory • Sensory memory = the initial system that briefly holds stimuli we perceive through our senses; other names for sensory memory are sensory buffer , iconic buffer (for images), and echoic memory for sounds. • We attend to some stimuli and not to others—this attention is first step in learning. • A challenge to teachers is to structure classroom environment to get and keep student attention at outset of lesson and keep them focused throughout the class. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Working Memory • Working memory defined: where new information is held briefly and combined with knowledge from long-term memory. • Resembles screen of computer—content is activated information, in-the- moment consciousness. • Capacity = 5-9 separate new items at once or the amount of info we can rehearse in about 1.5 seconds • Recent theories: two working memory systems—one for language-based information, one for nonverbal, spatial, visual information • Duration of info in working memory is short: 5-20 seconds. • Easily overwhelmed if cognitive load (especially extraneous load) is too great. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
Retaining Info in Working Memory • Use it or lose it: if info in working memory is not activated, it fades • Most people engage in specific strategies to keep it • Rehearsal : 2 types – Maintenance rehearsal — repeating information in your mind – Elaborative rehearsal — associating the info with something you already know (info in long-term memory) • Not only improves working memory, but also helps channel info from short- to long-term memory • Chunking : group or “ chunk ” individual bits of information into meaningful units (size doesn’t matter, # of bits does) W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
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