Difficulties it was expected that the number of

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difficulties, it was expected that the number of disciplinary infrac- tions and the number of days in punishment would also decrease after GPS completion. We also expected that treatment effects would be maintained over time. Finally, we expected that partic- ipants who completed the GPS treatment would present higher improvements in behavior and emotion regulation when compared with noncompleters. Method Trial Design and Participants As previously specified, the current study consisted in a sec- ondary data analysis collected from male prison inmates that participated in an independent RCT (that was designed in accor- dance with the CONSORT 2010 guidelines) with blind assess- ments. Recruitment into the original trial was conducted between 2013 and 2016 in nine prisons in three city areas in mainland Portugal (Lisbon, Oporto, and Coimbra) and in the Madeira Island. This study was registered as a randomized controlled trial (ID: NCT03013738) at ClinicalTrials.gov, and was approved by the Head of the General Directorate of Reintegration and Prison Ser- vices of the Portuguese Ministry of Justice. The study was also This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers. This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly. 59 GPS EFFECTS IN EMOTION AND BEHAVIOR REGULATION
approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences of the University of Coimbra where the Research Center is based. Additionally, researchers sought autho- rization by the Portuguese Data Protection Authority, in order to assure data protection from all participants involved in the study. Inclusion criteria were set for male prison inmates aged between 18- and 40-years-old, taking into account that most offenders incarcerated at the onset of the RCT were within this age range. Exclusion criteria included: (a) cognitive impairment (because GPS is not suitable for the cognitively impaired); (b) psychotic disorders (the experiential exercises used in the program are con- traindicated for psychotic patients); (c) being treated for substance abuse/dependence (cessation or at least substantial reduction of substances use must precede GPS treatment); (d) being sentenced exclusively for sexual offenses (sex offenders would benefit from more specific intervention programs); and (e) remaining in prison less than 24 months since the beginning of the program (taking into account GPS’s 12-month length and 12-month follow-up assessment). Female offenders were also excluded from the sample because women represent less than 6% of the total inmates in Portugal, and any possible idiosyncrasies from this cohort would be underrepresented. With regard to the sample size, a power analysis was conducted with the GPower v3.1 software ( Faul, Erdfelder, Buchner, & Lang, 2009 ). Results showed that a sample of 203 inmates was necessary to detect medium effects with a significance level of .05 and a power of .90. The power analysis was conducted a priori, that is,

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