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difficulties, it was expected that the number of disciplinary infrac-tions and the number of days in punishment would also decreaseafter GPS completion. We also expected that treatment effectswould be maintained over time. Finally, we expected that partic-ipants who completed the GPS treatment would present higherimprovements in behavior and emotion regulation when comparedwith noncompleters.MethodTrial Design and ParticipantsAs previously specified, the current study consisted in a sec-ondary data analysis collected from male prison inmates thatparticipated in an independent RCT (that was designed in accor-dance with the CONSORT 2010 guidelines) with blind assess-ments. Recruitment into the original trial was conducted between2013 and 2016 in nine prisons in three city areas in mainlandPortugal (Lisbon, Oporto, and Coimbra) and in the Madeira Island.This study was registered as a randomized controlled trial (ID:NCT03013738) at ClinicalTrials.gov, and was approved by theHead of the General Directorate of Reintegration and Prison Ser-vices of the Portuguese Ministry of Justice. The study was alsoThis document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.59GPS EFFECTS IN EMOTION AND BEHAVIOR REGULATION
approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Psychologyand Educational Sciences of the University of Coimbra where theResearch Center is based. Additionally, researchers sought autho-rization by the Portuguese Data Protection Authority, in order toassure data protection from all participants involved in the study.Inclusion criteria were set for male prison inmates aged between18- and 40-years-old, taking into account that most offendersincarcerated at the onset of the RCT were within this age range.Exclusion criteria included: (a) cognitive impairment (becauseGPS is not suitable for the cognitively impaired); (b) psychoticdisorders (the experiential exercises used in the program are con-traindicated for psychotic patients); (c) being treated for substanceabuse/dependence (cessation or at least substantial reduction ofsubstances use must precede GPS treatment); (d) being sentencedexclusively for sexual offenses (sex offenders would benefit frommore specific intervention programs); and (e) remaining in prisonless than 24 months since the beginning of the program (takinginto account GPS’s 12-month length and 12-month follow-upassessment). Female offenders were also excluded from the samplebecause women represent less than 6% of the total inmates inPortugal, and any possible idiosyncrasies from this cohort wouldbe underrepresented.With regard to the sample size, a power analysis was conductedwith the GPower v3.1 software (Faul, Erdfelder, Buchner, & Lang,2009). Results showed that a sample of 203 inmates was necessaryto detect medium effects with a significance level of .05 and apower of .90. The power analysis was conducted a priori, that is,