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Conduction defect in the atria causes regular atrial rate between 250-400 bpm b)Ventricular rate between 60 – 150, usually regular, sometimes irregular c)P waves are replaced by flutter waves (saw-tooth waves) d)More than one P wave for each QRS, PR interval cannot be determined. e)QRS complex usually normal f)May be caused by underlying heart disease, or following open heart surgery g)May progress to Atrial Fibrillation h)Treatment includes antiarrhythmic meds, CaCBs, beta-blockers, anticoagulation, cardioversion, ablation (Atrial Flutter)4. Atrial Fibrillation (A-fib) a)Multiple atrial impulses firing so rapidly that the atria fibrillate b)Irregular rhythm c)P waves replaced by fibrillation waves (uncoordinated, rapid, chaotic) d)PR Interval cannot be determined e)QRS complex usually normal f)May be caused by heart disease, myocardial infarction, excessive use of alcohol a.or caffeine g)Controlled ventricular response (60-100bpm) h)Rapid ventricular response (>100/min) i)Treatment: same as Atrial Flutter- Treatment includes antiarrhythmic meds, CaCBs, beta-blockers, anticoagulation, cardioversion, ablation (Atrial Fibrillation)Ventricular Dysrhythmias 1. Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs) ** Feature a)One or more beats that occur early in the rhythm b)No P wave c)The QRS complex is wide and bizarre (greater than 0.12 seconds) d)There is usually a compensatory pause (the rhythm is NOT reset) e)May be unifocal or multifocal a.Unifocal: Impulse from one irritable ectopic cell b.Multifocal: Impulse from more than one irritable ectopic cell f)Bigeminy occurs when every other complex is a PVC g)Trigeminy occurs when every third complex is a PVC h)Couplet describes 2 PVCs in a row, without separation by a beat of the a.underlying rhythm i)Run of ventricular tachycardia occurs when 3+ PVCs occur in a row j)Caused by heart disease, MI, stimulants, stress/anxiety, & electrolyte imbalance.