6 critical to food industry borderline between acid

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pH value of 4.6- critical to Food industry, borderline between acid(<4.6, eg.citrus juices,apple juice,strawberries,apples; willNOT support growth of most disease-causingmicroorganisms)&low-acid foods(>4.6, eg.meat,fish,vege).Total acidity vs pH: TA(titratable acidity)measures the totalacid conc; pH quantifies H+ conc(active acidity). Colors andPigments: naturally occur. In food; extracted from natural ofsynthetic sources-added to foods(Carotenoids: red intomatoes (lycopene); orange in carrots (beta carotene)Anthocyanins: blueberries, cherries,cranberries,plums&redcabbage; Chlorophyll). Aroma&taste: flavour (complex-100s or1000s of compounds, eg. aldehydes,ketones,acids,alcohols,FA); Aroma: volatile compounds; Taste:Non-volatile&h2o soluble); present as part of the foodmatrix(strawberries), or modified(cooked strawberries).Vitamins&Minerals:No effect on flavor, color,texture; lowamount in the diet to maintain health(h2o soluble: VC/Bcomplex/folic acid; fat soluble: VA,D,E,K; some used as foodadditives: preservatives(antioxidants))Minerals eg.Ca,Mg,Na,K,Fe,Zn. LESSON3 Why substitutes- consumertrends: demand w/ less fat, less calories and overall healthier(over eating&obesity,sedentary life style,developed countries). Protein based fat sub:Simplesse- protein is partially coagulated by heat; create a micro-dispersion:microparticulation(break the gel to micro gel then canbe replaced);spheres of protein&h2o are very small(0.1-0.2 microns) (Eg.icecream, yogurt,cheese spread,salad dressing, margarine, mayonnaise, coffee creamer,soups&sauces; can’t usein thermally processed food); soy, milk(whey)/ egg white protein;dispersion perceived as a fluid w/creaminess&richness of fat(tinyparticles are below the size limit that we can feel w/our tongue); 1.3Cal/g; acceptable common namedepends on the form(egg white&milk protein-egg&milk protein; whey protein conc.-same/modified milk ingredient,simplesse in bracktes). CH based:Maltrin- CH sources: corn, potato, wheat&tapioca (cellulose, starch, gums,maltodextrins&fibre); smooth mouthfeel and bland flavor; fully digestible(4cal/g); other CH based fat replacer available range from non-digestible to partially dig.(0-2cal/g)(Eg.avicel,betatrim); Margarine,salad dreesing,frozen desserts,frostings,processed meat. Fat based-Sucrose Polyester: Olean(Olestra); approved in US in 1996,not in Ca; can withstand high tem(frying); rich taste&creamy texture of ordinary fat cuz it’s fat base; made primarily from fat; 6-8FA chains instead of 3 attached to SUCROSE molecule:sucrose polyester(not metabolized¬ absorbed by body—0cal/g); large portions of olestra snacks(abdominal cramping/changes in stool consistency—similar to consumption of high-fibre diets); not digested/absorbed-thus fat-soluble vitamins consumed at the same time are not absorbed(must mention that VA,D,E,K have been added). Sweeteners(sugar substitutes)- means a food additive used to impart a sweet taste to food; Sweetening agent-includes any food for which a standard is provided in division 18 but doesn’t include those in 16(white&brown table sugar,molasses&honey). Y use sweeteners:those w/diabetes/individuals concerned w/high caloric intake/reducing

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