Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility, and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (liner and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance. Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge. Potentiometer-principle and applications to measure potential difference, and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell. UNIT III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot -Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, strai ght and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors- definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in a magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter. Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magn etic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia-and ferro-magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnetic and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets. UNIT IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents Electromagnetic induction; F araday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance. Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattles current. AC generator and transformer. UNIT V: Electromagnetic Waves Need for displacement current. Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses. UNIT VI: Optics Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens- maker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror.
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- Spring '14
- Human Resource Management, Magnetic Field, Fundamental physics concepts, Uniform Circular Motion, uniform magnetic field, class xi, class xii