10 Cynthia Graber Farming Like the Incas Smithsoniancom Sep 6 2011 accessed Oct

10 cynthia graber farming like the incas

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10 Cynthia Graber, “Farming Like the Incas,” Smithsonian.com , Sep 6, 2011, accessed Oct 6, 2017, . Figure 1. “Ritual Food Container with Cover.” Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY.
Women, no matter their class, were considered inferior compared to men. The honoring of ancestors was done with elaborate ceremonies, but the ancestors being exalted were men, never women. 11 Women of the ruling class in the Silla Dynasty, however, were held in high esteem, even ascending to the throne on two different occasions. The aristocracy of the Unified Silla Kingdom consisted of the Kim clan, and in fact, “all but three of the 27 monarchs of the Unified Silla dynasty” were part of the Kim family. 12 This was made possible by the kolp’um system, which decreed that all Silla kings would be from 11 Jerry H. Bentley, Herbert F. Ziegler, Heather Streets-Salter, Traditions and Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past, 6 th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2015), 102, SNHU e-book. 12 Keith L. Pratt, “Unified Silla, AD 668-936: The Building of Confidence,” Everlasting Flower: A History of Korea, (London: Reaktion Books, Limited, 2006), 62.
so˘nggo˘l (‘sacred bone’) rank, and from 356-402 CE, this meant anyone with the surname of Kim. 13 The ruling class of the Unified Silla Dynasty lived opulently, thanks in part to their heavy taxation of the peasant classes. It is written in the 13 th -century text Samguk yusa (‘Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms’), that in the capital city of Gyeongju, “there were an astonishing 35 palaces, 55 streets, 1360 districts, and 178,936 houses.” 14 In the royal family, women were respected because of the kolp’um system, and the ‘sacred bone’ decree made it possible for not one, but two women to ascend the throne and become Queen of the Silla Kingdom, as there were no living male heirs to rule. Only 50 years prior to Unified Silla, Queen Seondeok, eldest daughter of King Jinpyeong, ascended to the throne in 632 CE, when her father died. 15 After her passing in 647 CE, there was still no remaining male heir, so her cousin, Chindok, became Queen. However, after Queen Chindok, the kolp’um system was changed, “with the highest sacred bone rank abolished and monarchs now chosen from the wider second level, the true bone rank.” 16 True bone rank also incorporated the Kim surname however, so those of the Kim family continued to ascend to the throne, until peasant unrest and conflicts within the aristocracy would eventually lead to the demise of the Unified Silla Dynasty. The Inca ruling class began with the Sapa Inca, or supreme leader, and branched out from there, but the ruling class consisted of Sapa Inca’s blood or close relatives – similar to the Unified Silla. As stated in Daily Life in the Inca Empire, “As the empire grew, there were not 13 Keith L. Pratt, 62.

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