Fires landslides floods should be assessed and

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fires, landslides, floods) should be assessed and potentially hazardous areas should be mapped out. 2.12.1 Procedure for the habitat assessment During the habitat assessment following data/information should be collected from the field surveys as described in section 2.2. ± Record the name of tree, herb and shrub species, ± List (if available) with local name, common name and scientific name, collect and prepare herbarium with photographs of unidentified vegetation, ± Classify the habitat type of pangolin i.e. Forests (with tree species as dominant vegetation), Agriculture land (with cultivated crops), Grassland (with vegetation as dominant grass) and disturbance regime like grazing, ± Count the number of tree species in each quadrate, measure DBH and height and calculate density, relative density, frequency and relative frequency,Estimate the Important Value of Index (IVI) using the formula IVI=RD+RF+RDom, (RD=Relative density, RF= Relative frequency, RDom= Relative dominance), and ± Assess the habitat quality of the species. Run Habitat Suitability Index Model (HSI-Model). Figure 12. Use of sniffer dog to detect droppings and burrows of pangolin (Photo credit: Ambika Prasad Khatiwada/NTNC)
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14 | Pangolin Monitoring Guideline for Nepal Figure 13 . Procedure of transistor setting in Pangolin (Photo credit: Nick Ching -Min Sun, Taiwan) Box 3. Major variables required for modeling Proximity Variables ± Distance from the nearest settlement, ± Distance from the main road, and ± Distance from the nearest water resources (river, tunnel, streams, pond, lake, etc). Environmental Variables ± Temperature ± Moisture ± Rainfall ± Humidity
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Pangolin Monitoring Guideline for Nepal | 15 2.13 Hotspots Identification Occurrence of high frequency and density of fresh burrows, and variables like large area of suitable habitat (e.g. availability of food and water sources, open land for free movement, suitable canopy cover and regular occurrence of pangolins' direct and indirect signs, etc.) are considered to identify a site as a biological hotspot of pangolins. In addition, pangolin hotspots can also be identified by assessing the sites with high and low anthropogenic activities as well as tracing locations of illegal trade routes and seizure cases. Hotspots of pangolins can be identified by following methods: ± Published and unpublished literature review, ± Direct and indirect field survey, ± Records in Division Forest Offices, PAs, CFUGs, CIB and Central Zoo, ± Rescue/confiscation records, and ± MaxEnt modeling, etc. 2.14 Threats Identification Methods to identify the threat to the species and their habitats can help to assess types of threats pertaining to the species in a given area. Following methods can be explored and used for identifying threats to pangolins.
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