These sociologists also used a research technique known asmapping in which they

These sociologists also used a research technique

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These sociologists also used a research technique known as mapping , in which they collected demographic data such as age, gender, and socioeconomic status, geographically distributed this information, and then analyzed the distribution. After identifying problems and devising a social‐action policy based on available data, they would organize community members and lobby political leaders to solve the problem. Addams, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931, played a major part in establishing government safety and health standards and regulations, as well as founding important government programs, including Social Security, Workers' Compensation, and the Children's Bureau. For about the first 40 years of the 20th century , most American sociologists emphasized the practical aspects of the field, especially in terms of initiating various social reforms. That is, they viewed sociology as an applied social science (applying their knowledge to create practical solutions to societal problems). Later, when sociologists became more interested in developing general theories of how society works, many viewed sociology as a basic social science, (seeking knowledge for the sake of knowledge only). Along with the ideal of knowledge for its own sake came the notion that sociology should be “pure” and objective—without values, opinions, or agendas for social reform. As a result, between 1940 and 1960, sociologists developed and applied rigorous and sophisticated scientific methods to the study of social behavior and societies. In the 1960s, however, people began to challenge sociology's objective and value‐free approach to social knowledge. An increased awareness of and interest in such social ills as racial unrest, gender inequity, poverty, and controversy over the Vietnam War led
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society once again to look for the practical solutions associated with sociology as an applied science. At the dawn of the 21st century, sociology in America is a social science that is both applied and basic, subjective and objective. In addition, the discipline has divided into many specialties and subspecialties— from industrial sociology (the application of sociological principles to solving industrial and business problems) to ethnomethodology (the scientific study of common sense) to clinical sociology (the application of sociological principles to solving human problems and effecting social change). Today, the number of sociologists stands at about 20000. It is significant that interest in sociology arose in the United States just after the Civil War. It has been suggested that the War left this country with many problems which challenged the attention of men. It had rocked the social structure of our people to its foundations. It had challenged thinking men to a reconsideration of the fundamental problems of government and social relation ships. Like every important war, the Civil War and its after-results disturbed the settled status of classes and raised questions concerning settled opinions, and to thinking minds presented the challenge of re-examining some of our fundamental notions. It was a time when
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