These people all spoke similar languages and had come to see themselves as one people. They called themselves South Slavs, or Yugoslavs. The first of these people to obtain independence were the Serbs, who formed a nation called Serbia between the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian empires. Serbs believed their nation’s mission was to unite the South Slavs. Russia supported the Serbs, while Austria- Hungary did what it could to limit Serbia’s growth. In 1908 Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia, which at the time belonged to the Ottoman Empire. The Serbs were furious. They wanted Bosnia to be part of their nation. The annexation demonstrated to the Serbs that Austria-Hungary had no intention of letting the Slavic people in its empire become independent. A Continent Goes to War In late June 1914, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, visited the Bosnian capital 450 CHAPTER 14 World War I and Its Aftermath Fateful Couple Archduke Franz Ferdinand and wife Sophia visit Sarajevo the day of the assassination.
of Sarajevo. As he and his wife rode through the city, a Bosnian revolutionary named Gavrilo Princip rushed their open car and shot the couple to death. The assassin was a member of a Serbian nationalist group nicknamed the “Black Hand.” The assassination took place with the knowledge of Serbian officials who hoped to start a war that would bring down the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Austro-Hungarian government blamed Serbia for the attack and decided the time had come to crush Serbia in order to prevent Slavic national- ism from undermining its empire. Knowing an Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection 500 kilometers 500 miles 0 0 N S E W 20 ° E 30 ° E 40 ° E 10 ° W 40 ° N 50 ° N 60 ° N Corsica Fr. Sardinia It. Sicily It. Crete Gr. Cyprus U.K. North Sea Baltic Sea Black Sea M e d i t e r r a n e a n S e a ATLaNTIC OCEaN UNITED KINGDOM NORWAY SWEDEN DENMARK NETH. BELG. FRANCE SPAIN PORTUGAL ITALY SWITZ. GERMANY AUSTRIA- HUNGARY RUSSIA ROMANIA BULGARIA OTTOMAN EMPIRE GREECE SERBIA MONTENEGRO ALBANIA LUX. SPANISH MOROCCO MOROCCO Fr. ALGERIA Fr. TUNISIA Fr. LIBYA It. EGYPT U.K. St. Petersburg Moscow Constantinople Rome Sarajevo Budapest Vienna Berlin Paris London (Petrograd) Italy refused to honor Central Powers alliance and joined Allied Powers on May 23, 1915. June 28, 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated by Serb nationalist. Greece did not enter the war until 1917. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915. Romania joined the Allies in 1916. June 28 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand July 30 Russia begins mobilizing troops in defense of Serbia ✦ July 1914 July 28 Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia August 3 Germany declares war on France, begins invasion of Belgium August 6 Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia August 4 Britain declares war on Germany August 12 France and Great Britain declare war on Austria-Hungary August 1 Germany declares war on Russia European Alliances, 1914 Allied Powers Central Powers Neutral nations Initial troop movements of Central Powers ✦ August 1914 CHAPTER 14 World War I and Its Aftermath 451 1.
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- Fall '16
- Robert Hassell
- World War I