Motivating potential score skillvariety xtotal

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Motivating potential score = ( SkillVariety xTotal Idendity x Task Significance 3 ¿ x Autonomy x Feedback Approaches managers use to redesign jobs 1. Horizontal Loading (job enlargement) –– take a job at the lowest level and load it up with more tasks that are also low responsibility 2. Vertical Loading (job enrichment)– we give another person a task to do from a higher responsibility
a. One way to increase all 5 methods of job characteristics and is effective in increasing motivation 3. Vertical Job Rotation (job enrichment) you change between jobs on a schedule that is a higher responsibility; similar effects as vertical loading 4. Horizontal Rotation (job enrichment) you change between jobs on a schedule that is a low (same level) responsibility; similar effects as horizontal loading 5. Increasing Customer or Client Contact (job enrichment) 6. Creation of Work Groups (job enrichment) putting together natural work groups
Book Notes: Chapter 5 (Learning and Creativity) Learning – a relatively permanent change in knowledge or behavior that results from practice or experience . o With Learning comes Change Learning Through Consequences Operant Conditioning – learning that takes place when the learner recognizes the connection between a behavior and its consequences o Individuals learn to operate in their environment in a certain way to achieve certain consequences. Behaviors Reinforcement – the process by which the probability that a desired behavior will occur is increased by applying consequences that depend on the behavior in question. Positive Reinforcements Administering positive consequences to employees who perform the behavior Antecedents Anything that tells employees about desired and undesired behaviors and their consequences Punishment Administering negative consequences to employees who perform the behavior Undesired organizational behaviors Extinction Removing whatever is currently reinforcing the behavior Desired organizational behaviors Negative Reinforcements Removing negative consequences when employees perform the behavior
Positive Reinforcement – increases the probability that a behavior will occur by administering positive consequences to employees who perform the behavior. (INCREASES probability of desired behavior) In general positive reinforcement is better for employees, managers, and the organization as a whole than negative reinforcement. Negative Reinforcement – increases the probability of a desired behavior by removing a negative consequence when an employee performs the behavior. (INCREASES probability of desired behavior) Often has unintended side effects and makes for an unpleasant work environment. Continuous reinforcement – a behavior is reinforced every time it occurs; Faster learning Partial reinforcement – a behavior is reinforced intermittently. Shaping – the reinforcement of successive and closer approximations to a desired behavior.

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