JFK says that “Two thousand years ago the proudest boast was ‘civis Romanus sum, today, in the world of freedom, the proudest boast is ‘Ich bin ein Berliner.” It demonstrates a combination of ethos and pathos; JFK invokes his credibility as the President of the United States to make a persuasive emotional appeal to the people of West Berlin by identifying with them as a Berliner in their native language (Einchoff 73). JFK is also indicating that he relates to West Berlin in their resilience in maintaining a democracy while East Berlin tries to eradicate them. Moreover, by comparing his slogan “Ich bin ein Berliner” with the Roman Empire, JFK connects historical weight to the phrase and also incorporates parallelism and anaphora to emphasize his words. In his speech, JFK also claims that “Freedom is indivisible” and reasons that “when one man is
3 enslaved, all are not free.” This analogy conveys the idea that until East Berlin can break free of the Soviet Union, those in the West are also a prisoner of their stronghold (Einchoff 75). JFK's main constraint was escalating tensions with the USSR in the midst of the Cold War, and he had to be cautious of his words so as not to threaten the possibility of diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union. Nevertheless, he still succeeded to stand his ground in support of the West while also sending a clear message to the Soviet Union about the U.S. and NATO’s intentions to support the Capitalist West’s mission for freedom and democracy. JFK was careful in showing Western involvement in Berlin as a unified commitment. According to Kevin Dean, the portrayal of support from others allowed JFK to take a firm stance while demonstrating a deep resolve not to rush into action without debilitating appropriate channels of negotiation (Dean 538). Moreover, before giving his speech, the president had just returned from a visit on
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