Ch 9 VSEPR and valence bond theory.pdf

Y z y z y z y z sp 2 orbital hybridization x x x x p

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y z y z y z y z sp 2 orbital hybridization x x x x p y p z p x s y z y z 120° x x + 120° 120° S. Ensign, Chem. 1210 94 p y Three sp 2 orbitals
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sp 2 orbital hybridization y z p x p y p z nonhybridized p orbitals x 3 equivalent sp 2 orbitals p y s S. Ensign, Chem. 1210 95
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View the three sp 2 orbitals individually z x y With the three sp 2 orbitals in the x z plane, the nonhybridized p orbital is nonhybridized p orbital is left in the y plane, which is perpendicular to this plane y z y z y z x x x S. Ensign, Chem. 1210 96
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Orbital hybridization • Appropriate s p and d orbitals on central atom Appropriate s, p, and d orbitals on central atom are mixed to create a new set of hybrid orbitals directed towards bonded atoms and lone pairs To get two equivalent orbitals for a molecule predicted to have linear electron pair geometry, mix “ ” f “ ” the one valence “s” and one of the three valence “p” orbitals to make two equivalent “sp” orbitals S. Ensign, Chem. 1210 97
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y z y z y z y z sp orbital hybridization x x x x p y p z p x s y z y z 180° y z x x + x + x S. Ensign, Chem. 1210 98 p y Two sp orbitals p z
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sp orbital hybridization y z y z p x p y p z nonhybridized p orbitals x x p y p z x s 2 equivalent sp 2 orbitals x S. Ensign, Chem. 1210 99
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Hybridization in a molecule with trigonal bipyramidal electron pair geometry S. Ensign, Chem. 1210 100
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Hybridization in a molecule with octahedral electron pair geometry S. Ensign, Chem. 1210 101
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Orbital hybridization • Mixing atomic orbitals to form hybrid orbitals Mixing atomic orbitals to form hybrid orbitals allows new orbitals to be formed with the correct gemoetries to satisfy VSEPR theory Appropriate s, p, and d orbitals on central atom i d t t t f h b id bit l are mixed to create a new set of hybrid orbitals directed towards bonded atoms and lone pairs The number of hybrid orbitals required is equal to the number of electron domains around the central atom – “n” e - domains: “n” hybrid orbitals S. Ensign, Chem. 1210 102
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Predicting orbital hybridization 1. Draw Lewis # of e - pairs e - pair geometry hybridi- zation Draw Lewis structure 2. Determine e - pair 2 linear sp 3 t i l 2 geometry (VSEPR) 3. Determine hybrid trig. planar sp 4 tetrahedral sp 3 orbitals needed to give correct e - pair 5 trig. bipyr. sp 3 d geometry 6 octahedral sp 3 d 2 S. Ensign, Chem. 1210 103
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Predict the hybrid orbitals formed on the central atom in the following molecules • SCl 2 BI • BI 3 • NCl 3 • AlCl 4 - • PF 5 PF • SF 6 I • I 3 - S. Ensign, Chem. 1210 104
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Predict the hybrid orbitals formed on the central atom in the following molecules • SCl 2 BI • BI 3 • NCl 3 • AlCl 4 - • PF 5 PF • SF 6 I • I 3 - S. Ensign, Chem. 1210 105
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Predicting orbital hybridization 1. Draw Lewis # of e - pairs e - pair geometry hybridi- zation Draw Lewis structure 2. Determine e - pair 2 linear sp 3 t i l 2 geometry (VSEPR) 3. Determine hybrid trig. planar sp 4 tetrahedral sp 3 orbitals needed to give correct e - pair 5 trig. bipyr. sp 3 d geometry 6 octahedral sp 3 d 2 S. Ensign, Chem. 1210 106
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S. Ensign, Chem. 1210 107
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S. Ensign, Chem. 1210 108
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Sigma ( σ ) bonds and pi ( π ) bonds S. Ensign, Chem. 1210 109
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