4 If we are later called upon to defend our decision we will be better prepared

4 if we are later called upon to defend our decision

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4. If we are later called upon to defend our decision, we will be better prepared to do so. 5. BECAUSE IT MAKES YOU THINK. Should perspective matter in evaluation ethical behavior? o Personal background? o Religion? o Individual vs. Society? o Right vs. wrong? Chapter 37: Business Ethics and Decision Making: Can we learn to be more ethical? Baylor Incident: Hubris- excessive pride and Detachment Social and Organizational Pressure Obedience to authority o I’m just doing my job! (blindly following) o Giving our responsibility up- “had to do it so I did” o Stanley Milgram's famous experiment: People predicted that less than 1% of participants would obey the experimenter’s instructions to administer apparently injurious shocks to innocent, protesting victims. 65% ended up doing so. o Acceptability Heuristic: People often judge whether their decision is right not in terms of content of ethics, but whether it will be acceptable to their superiors
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o All business actors must keep in mind this very human tendency to defer to authority, so that they can guard against its potentially corrosive influence Conformity bias o Also know as the theory of social proof- tells us that people tend to take their cues as to proper behavior in most social contexts from the actions of others o In our decision making, we have a bias toward conforming to the actions and standards of others that we perceive to be accepted by our peers o Solomon Asch’s famous experiment- Found that when asked to tell which of three lines was the same length as a fourth line, subjects had no difficulty whatsoever unless they were placed in an experimental condition in the presence of six of the experimenter’s confederates who gave obviously wrong answers. Almost all subjects found it very painful to give the obviously correct answer in contradiction of these stranger’s erroneous errors o When everyone else is doing it so you do it; wait to see what others do first- don’t want to stand out o Thus, people are more likely to undertake unethical actions in the workplace if peers are engaging in similar behavior. And they certainly are less likely to blow the whistle on unethical activity when peers seem to accept it, just as a bystander to crime is less likely to help the victim when others nearby aren’t helping Groupthink o The impairment of individual decision making and can also play a role here as people attempt to merge into their social collective o Causes collections of people to make much different decisions than the same people would make individually o Group decisions are often more extreme than the median decision that members in the group would make individually o Things are done differently in a group- can’t disagree o More of a mob mentality o Ex: Bay of Pigs and space shuttle Challenger disaster False Consensus Effect o Inclinations to follow authority and submit to peer pressure are reinforced by the false consensus effect- the tendency to believe that other people will think the
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