Prize would be awarded to the winner cycling the lon

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prize would be awarded to the winner cycling the lon- gest distance during TT. Blood samples collection and biochemical measurements Venous blood was collected from anticubital arm vein into vacutainer tubes before the performance tests. Heparin plasma and serum were obtained after centrifugation at 3000 × g for 10 min. Samples were stored at -80°C until ana- lyses. Finger blood was obtained via puncture for glucose determination at 0, 60, 125 and 155 min during the test. Free fatty acid (FFA), pyruvic acid (PA), and total anti- oxidant capacity (TAOC) in plasma were determined using commercial kits (Randox Laboratories Ltd, Crumlin, UK), and an auto-biochemical analyzer (Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan). Plasma VE, malondialdehyde (MDA) and arginine levels, xanthine oxidase (XOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and creatine kin- ase (CK) activities, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and ni- tric oxide (NO) were measured using spectrophotometric kits (Jiancheng Bioengineering Institute, Nanjing, China). Serum insulin (Ins) and cortisol (Cor) concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay kit (Jiuding Diagnos- tic, Tianjin, China). Blood glucose (BG) was determined using handheld blood glucose analyzer (One Touch, LifeScan, Inc. Milpitas, CA). Diet and dietary record All subjects lived in a winter training camp and dined in the same canteen throughout the study, and were advised by a registered dietician to follow a diet with 60% total cal- ories from CHO, 15% from protein, and 25% from fat for 2 days before each performance test. Generally subjects had a typical Chinese breakfast consisting of one chicken egg, two servings of steamed breads or noodles, deep-fried dough sticks, rice congee, bean milk, some meat, some vegetables and appetizers, and lunch and dinner consist- ing of meat, steamed rice, steamed breads, noodles, soup, milk, fruit and vegetables, etc. To assess dietary intake throughout the study, a 2-day food record was conducted at week 2, 4, 8, and 10. Chinese food database (issued by Chinese Society of Nutrition) was used for nutritional analysis (Additional file 3). During the regular training, subjects were allowed to drink 6% CHO- electrolytes-vitamins (without VE) beverage (Competitor, Beijing, China) with an average amount of 1500 ml/d. Ten minutes prior to the performance test, subjects checked their BM after emptying bladder, and ingested 2.0% CHO- electrolytes-vitamins (without VE) beverage at 6 mL/kg BM for the pre-testing hydration, 2.5 mL/kg/15 min during SS. No beverage was provided during TT. Subjects did not take any other dietary supplements throughout the study. Exercise training regimen Basically, all subjects had their road cycling training to- gether, whereas two triathletes had their run and swim training in the same training site throughout the study.
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  • Fall '11
  • John Smith
  • Alm, sports nutrition, COK, performance test

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