•The fore-and-aft movement of the control column causes the tailerons to operate together, which in turn rotates the aircraft about its lateral, or pitch, axis. •If the control column is moved sideways, the tailerons move differentially—with one taileron going up while the other is going down—causing the aircraft to rotate about its longitudinal, or roll, axistailerons, which move independently of each other to provide both pitch and roll control. Note the different attack angles visible
Flaperons•is a type of aircraft control surface that combines aspects of both flaps and ailerons.•In addition to controlling the roll or bank of an aircraft as do conventional ailerons, both flaperons can be lowered together to function similarly to a dedicated set of flaps.•Both ailerons could also be raised, which would give spoilerons.
T-Tails•This arrangement positions the stabilizer and elevator at the top of the vertical fin.•Make the fin and rudder more effective.•it also positions the horizontal tail above wing turbulence.•The T-tail structure must handle the tail-and-fin bending loads.•Engineers must compensate for this by increasing the design stiffness of the vertical stabilizer, usually resulting in a weight penalty over conventional tail designs.•T-tail designs have become popular on many light airplanes and on large aircraft, especially those with aft-fuselage mounted engines since the T-tail configuration removes the tail from the exhaust blast of the engines.•Seaplanes and amphibians often have T-tails in order to keep the horizontal surfaces as far from the water as possible.•An additional benefit is reduced vibration and noise inside the aircraft.
T-Tail issues•At slow speeds, the elevator on a T-tail aircraft must be moved through a larger number of degrees of travel to raise the nose a given amount as compared to a conventional-tail aircraft. •Because the conventional-tail aircraft has the downwash from the propeller pushing down on the tail to assist in raising the nose•When flying at a very high angle of attack with a low airspeed and an aft CG, the T-tail airplane may be susceptible to a deep stall.•In a deep stall, the airflow over the horizontal tail is blanketed by the disturbed airflow from the wings and fuselage. In these circumstances, elevator or stabilator control could be diminished, making it difficult to recover from the stall.
Trim TabsDescribes small secondary flight-control surfaces set into the trailing edges of the primary control surface.Used reduce the work load required to hold the aircraft in some constant attitude by loading the surface.Tabs can be fixed or variable
Fixed Tabs•Normally a piece of sheet metal attached to the trailing edge.