Relationship with business leading to crime

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relationship with business leading to crime Government omissions also allow corporations to engage in illegal and potentially harmful activities Government becomes a passive participant in the facilitation of SC crime
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Two Types Kramer and Michalowski (1993) argued that state-corporate crime can take two forms State-initiated corporate crime State-facilitated corporate crime
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State-Initiated Corporate Crime Occurs when corporations, employed by the government, engage in organizational deviance at the direction of, or with the tacit approval of, the government Such as the Challenger disaster
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State-Facilitated Corporate Crime Occurs when government regulatory institutions fail to restrain deviant business activities Either because of direct collusion between business and government or because they adhere to shared goals whose attainment would be hampered by aggressive regulation For example, the fire at the Hamlet chicken plant
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Framework In addition to providing the original concept, Kramer and Michalowski (1990) also suggest a theoretical framework to explain SC crime They integrate three perspectives into a single framework Differential association Organizational structure Political and economic structure
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A Conceptual Framework Their framework relates the interaction between all three aspects with three “catalysts” for action Motivation or performance pressure Opportunity structure Operationally of control Identifies key factors that promote or constrain organizational deviance at the intersection of catalysts and structural level
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Case Studies Space shuttle Challenger ValuJet flight 592 crash The Fire in Hamlet
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Context of SC Crime To understand why these tragedies occurred we must examine the larger “nested context” in which they take place The following case studies examine the corporate actions as the proximal causes of these tragedies as well as the indirect economic and political context that led to those actions
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Space Shuttle Challenger
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Space Shuttle Challenger NASA was created during the Cold War and was given a large budget and unlimited support By the 1980s the budget was cut and the short-term goal became the creation of a reusable space shuttle Budget constraints forced the shuttle to be redesigned numerous times and compromises be made in the design, including using solid rockets instead of liquid
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Space Shuttle Challenger President Reagan declared the shuttle operational More realistically, it should still have been in the research and development stage After this declaration, pressure was put on
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