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4.Saturated fats increase levels of Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) increase myocardial infarction (MI) and strokes5.Neutral fats + cholesterol6.Transport mostly cholesterol to steriodogenic cells a.Steriodogenic cells: cells that synthesize steroid hormones7.3 Types of Lipoproteins (Lipids + proteins): a.Very low Density Lipoproteins (vLDL)a.i.Lipid + proteins=lipidproteinsa.ii.Lipids are less dense then proteinsa.iii.vLDL & LDL= lipid portion is greater than protein portion a.iii.1.More lipid and less proteinb.Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) = “BAD CHOLESTEROL”b.i.Too much of it will kill youc.High Density Lipoproteins (HDL) = “GOOD CHOLESTEROL”c.i.Transport neutral fats + cholesterol to the liver where cholesterol is degraded and eliminated from the bodyc.ii.Decreases cholesterol levels in the bloodgood cholesterol c.iii.HDL: More protein and less lipid 8.TRANS FATS: Unsaturated fats + H+ = Saturated (solid) fatsa.Margarine b.Trans fats increase the levels of LDL substantially hence, increasing the chances of developing MI and strokesc.Artificially creates saturated fats which are worse in higher LDL than the naturally occurring saturated fatsd.Solidification of the unsaturated fats by the addition of hydrogen e.Trans fats higher LDLOrganic: Lipids: Neutral Fats: LDLs1.Excess LDLsthe cholesterol is used to maintain the plasma (cell) membrane“cholesterol maintains the integrity of the plasma membrane”2.Excessive intake of cholesterol beyond steroid hormone synthesis and maintaining the plasma membraneexcess cholesterol is carried in the blood stream as LDLs3.LDLs settle into the internal surface of the blood vessels forming atherosclerotic plaque 4.Atherosclerosis can lead to myocardial infarction (“heart attack”), ischemic stroke (“brain attack”), or even death.5.Formation of plaques in large blood vessels leads to hypertension as the plaque impede blood flow through these blood vessel6.If parts of the atherosclerotic plaques dislodge and become free-floating in the bloodstreamemboli7.Emboli may become lodges in smaller blood vessels8.Smallest blood vessels in the human body area.i.1.a.i.1.Coronary blood vessels of the hear
13Organic: Lipids: Coronary Artery Stent1.Coronary heart disease (CHD) also known as coronary artery disease (CAD) 2.The #1 killer of both men and women in the United States3.CHD occurs if plaque builds up in the coronary arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the myocardium in the heart wall
14Organic: Lipids: Phospholipids1.Each phospholipid is composed of a glycerol backbone but with…a.2 free fatty acid chains attacheda.i.2 free fatty acid chains attachednon polar and are referred to the “nonpolar tails” b.1 phosphorous containing group attached to the glycerol in the opposite directionb.i.Phosphorous containing group