Which escape may be difficult or impossible symptoms

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which escape may be difficult or impossible (symptoms: avoiding open spaces, panic attacks themselves often occur in people with agoraphobia) b. Yes, you can have panic attacks without agoraphobia, and you can have agoraphobia without panic attacks (although this is somewhat rare). c. Children with inhibited temperamental style (shy, avoid unfamiliar people and objects) are more likely to develop anxiety disorders; heightened biological sensitivity for a threat response; classical conditioning (fears are learned). DIF: Difficult OBJ: 13.2b MSC: Understanding NOT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical
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Thinking | APA Goal 4, Communication 7. Your friend has obsessive-compulsive disorder and you would like to try to understand her disorder better. a. Describe the components of obsessive-compulsive disorder. b. Discuss the development of this disorder. Specifically, explain how one psychological and one biological factor increase the likelihood that the cycle of obsessive-compulsive disorder behaviors continues. c. Do you think eliminating the obsessions or compulsions of obsessive- compulsive disorder is more likely to be effective? Explain your response. d. Using what you know about conditioning, describe one way you could use either classical or operant conditioning to decrease the symptoms of obsessive- compulsive disorder. ANS: Answers may include: a. Obsessions—frequent intrusive anxiety-provoking thoughts; compulsions— unwanted behaviors that when performed, temporarily reduce feelings of anxiety b. Psychological factor—conditioning (classical—in which anxiety becomes paired to a specific event/trigger that should not normally be feared; and operant—compulsions are an example of negative reinforcement in which the performance of the action removes anxiety) Biological factor—genetics, and the neurotransmitter glutamate affect obsessive-compulsive disorder (increases neural firing); the caudate, which suppresses impulses in the brain, is smaller and structurally abnormal in people with obsessive-compulsive disorder c. Eliminating the obsessions will be more effective (without the obsessions, you do not need compulsions). d. Classical conditioning—eliminate the association between thoughts and anxiety; operant conditioning—use punishment after compulsions to make them not as desirable. DIF: Difficult OBJ: 13.2c MSC: Analyzing NOT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 4, Communication 8. Sonja has been diagnosed with bipolar II disorder, while her sister, Tanya, has been diagnosed with major depressive disorder. a. Describe the similarities and differences in Sonja’s and Tanya’s symptoms. b. How would Sonja’s behavior differ if she had been diagnosed with bipolar I?
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