has been absorbed by the oceans 1 point 13 On human time scales what are the

Has been absorbed by the oceans 1 point 13 on human

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has been absorbed by the oceans. (1 point) 13. On human time scales, what are the three major fates of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emitted to the atmosphere? (describe with a few words) (3 points) a. Surface ocean b. Biosphere c. Atmosphere 6
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14. The figure below shows radiative forcing from different sources from the 2013 IPCC report. Take time to study this figure carefully, and then answer the following questions. a. What is the IPCC? What do they do? ( ) (1 point) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change b. What is radiative forcing? (1 point) Essentially how much additional energy is trapped (typically for a doubling of the given species) c. How does total anthropogenic forcing compare to total natural forcing? (1 point) Massively greater d. What drivers and emissions generally have a cooling effect on climate? (1 point) Aerosols e. What is the effect of deforestation of albedo? Would this be a positive (warming) or negative (cooling) radiative forcing (cooling)? Explain your answer. (2 points) (1 pt) Deforestation is generally cooling as it replaces low-albedo areas (forests) with higher albedo ones (cropland). (1 pt)However, it does technically depend on what the land is converted into (paving an old forest decreases albedo). 7
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15. Navigate to and watch the “CO 2 Movie.” Answer the following questions: a. Why are the seasonal variations in CO 2 larger in the northern hemisphere than in the southern hemisphere? (1 point) Land plants b. How do scientists know what atmospheric CO 2 concentrations were thousands of years ago? (1 point) Thousands of years: Greenland ice cores. Hundreds of thousands: Antarctic ice cores. (Not required: Millions: Boron isotopes and other geochemical and physiological indicators from fossil records.) c. The atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases are now higher than they have been in at least the last 800,000 (at least. That’s Vostokish) years. (1 point) 8 IPCC AR5: Summary for Policy Makers, - report/ar5/wg1/WG1AR5_SPM_FINAL.pdf
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16. On the same website, click on the “CO 2 Emissions” tab. Read the description and watch the animation, paying attention to how winds cause atmospheric mixing. Note that the animation is showing ONLY the emissions accumulated over a two year period from fossil fuel combustion. a. Which three regions are the major sources of CO 2 from combustion? (1 point) Eastern US, Western Europe, and East Asia 9
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  • Fall '10
  • BOB
  • Energy, Greenhouse gas

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