11 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Water being one of the earths most valuable

11 background of the study water being one of the

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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Water being one of the earth’s most valuable resources and essential for human survival, it has become a primary concern for people living in developing countries is accessing clean drinking water. In Africa and Asia, most people in rural areas depend on ground and surface water for sustenance. Globally, by 2000 over 1.1 billion people rely on unsafe drinking water sources from lakes, rivers and open Wales. The majority of these are in Asia (20%) and sub-Saharan Africa (42%). Furthermore, 2.4 billion people lack adequate sanitation worldwide (WHO/UNICEF, 2000). However In 2015, 91% of the world’s population had access to an improved drinking- water source, compared with 76% in 1990. 2.6 billion People have gained access to an improved drinking-water source since 1990. 4.2 billion People now get water through a piped connection; 2.4 billion access water through other improved sources including, public taps, protected wells and boreholes. 663 million people rely on unimproved sources, of which 159 million dependent on surface water (O'Neill 2016). 1
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Globally, at least 1.8 billion people use a drinking-water source contaminated with faeces, heavy metals and other dissolved inorganic compounds. Contaminated water can transmit diseases such diarrhea, cholera, dysentery, typhoid and polio among others which is estimated to cause 502 000 deaths each year. It is estimated that by 2025, half of the world’s population will be living in water-stressed areas. Unfortunately, in low- and middle-income countries including Uganda, 38% of health care facilities lack improved water source, 19% do not have improved sanitation and 35% lack water and soap for hand washing (WHO/UNICEF 2016). Lack of safe drinking water supply, basic sanitation and hygienic practices is associated with high morbidity and mortality from excreta related diseases. The current research project seeks to assess the level of heavy metals and concentration of calcium carbonate on borehole water and tapped water used in Nakambi Village. 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT. In Nakambi Village Borehole water and tap water extracted from the shores of Mount Moroto is the main source of water used for domestic activities. The level of its contamination with regard to heavy metals and calcium carbonate is not known. Therefore, monitoring the level of metals and concentration of calcium carbonate is important for safety assessment of the environment and human health in the Area moreover no classical research has been done to assess the level of heavy metals and concentration of calcium carbonate on borehole water and tapped water used in Nakambi Village, Moroto district, Northern Uganda. 2
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1.3. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY. The purpose of this study is to assess the level of heavy metals and concentration of calcium carbonate on borehole water and tapped water used in Nakambi Village.
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  • Fall '19
  • Water supply, Drinking water

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