Johnson Farm to School as a Strategy to increase Childrens Fruit and Vegetable

Johnson farm to school as a strategy to increase

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Johnson, Farm to School as a Strategy to increase Children’s Fruit and Vegetable Consump- tion in the United States: Research and Recommendations , 38 T HE N UTRITION B ULL . 70, 70 79 (2013), [ P2PD-VSLD]. Cf. L INDSAY H AYNES -M ADLOW & J EFFREY K. O’H ARA , U NION OF C ONCERNED S CIENTISTS , L ESSONS FROM THE L UNCHROOM : C HILDHOOD O BESITY , S CHOOL L UNCH , AND THE W AY TO A H EALTHIER F UTURE 1, 2 3 (Feb. 2015), attach/2015/02/lessons-from-the-lunchroom-report-ucs-2015.pdf [- DMT3] (finding that, although “school food programs have improved the diets of socioeconomically disadvantaged children,” “school food programs are not strong enough to overcome other unhealthy influences on children’s diets and prevent obesity”). 134 National School Lunch Program: Participation and Lunches Served , U.S. D EP T OF A GRIC ., [- 99HU] (last updated Oct. 9, 2015) (calculations by author). 135 See U.S. D EP T OF A GRIC ., E LIGIBILITY M ANUAL FOR S CHOOL M EALS : D ETERMINING AND V ERIFYING E LIGIBILITY 1, 11, 14 (Aug. 2014), cn/EliMan.pdf [] (defining eligibility criteria for children in households with income levels at 130% federal poverty level (“FPL”) for free lunch or 185% FPL for reduced price lunch, or who otherwise qualify for federal assistance programs such as
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\\jciprod01\productn\H\HLL\53-1\HLL104.txt unknown Seq: 21 20-JAN-16 10:35 2016] For the Health of It 407 83.5% of school breakfasts served under the SBP went to children who qual- ify for free or reduced price meals. 136 The children with most limited finan- cial access to healthy meals outside of school are disproportionately benefitting from improved school nutrition standards. 137 Under Executive Order 13,563, 138 this is a relevant quantified value that, while not expressly comparable to analyses of broad costs and benefits, would weigh in favor of justifying the cost of the nutrition standards. The above calculations contain additional assumptions, and a byproduct of an explicit benefits analysis would be directly addressing them. First, would students still participate in the healthier meal programs? The USDA’s cost analysis used the simplifying assumption that the participation rate would in fact remain the same, and even went so far as to estimate the cost impact of minor participation increases and decreases. 139 This approach could have been used in the benefits analysis as well. Second, would chil- dren compensate for the healthier food at school by eating more unhealthy foods from competitive food sources or outside of school? This is an impor- tant tradeoff that could have been more explicitly addressed. The USDA could have replicated its analysis for the competitive food rules, also author- ized in the HHFKA, which became final in August 2013.
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