Responsibility for adaptation major international

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Responsibility for Adaptation - Major international disagreements on the responsibility to plan and pay for adaptation - Stern report – “costs of inaction far outweigh costs of adaptation” - According to Oxfam, it will cost developing countries
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o 520 billion to adapt to a 2 degree warmer world (the target for avoiding catastrophic climate change agreed at previous UN conferences) o 790 billion every year to adapt to a 2.5 degree future - Paris Climate Talks 2015 o Strong disagreements over level of funding that Northern countries would pay to Southern countries for purposes of adaptation o Question of historical responsibilities Paris Climate Agreement 2015 - Reaffirmed agreement to keep temperature rise below 2 degrees C - Aim for 1.5 degrees C o Some developing countries initially refused to sacrifice development for mitigation India argued the right to develop comes first That West has historical responsibility for emissions Equity: Cause and Effect - Who is most affected by climate change? o “in today’s world, it is the poor who are bearing the brunt of climate change.. it will undermine efforts to build a more inclusive pattern of globalization, reinforcing the vast disparities between the ‘haves’ and the ‘have nots’ – UNDP Paris Accord Compromise - Principle of “common but differentiated responsibility” o N.B not liability - Countries et out mitigation targets known as Intended Nationally Determined Commitments (INDCs) - And West pledged to provide more financing for green development and climate change adaptation Mitigation = reduction of greenhouse gas emissions - How to promote mitigation? o Cap and trade o Green development mechanisms - Correspond to ecomodernist emphasis on decoupling o Relative o Absolute Cap and Trade - Create a marketplace for emission 1. Agree to overall emissions limit for large industry 2. Create credits that allow firms to emit greenhouse gasses and distribute those to firms 3. Facilitate a market in those credits, allowing efficient firms to sell credits - Can this be an effective market-driven solution? Clean Development Mechanism
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- Allow new development projects in developing countries to certify as efficient, emissions reducing initiatives - Allow Western firms to buy these certificated as part of their carbon credits o Creates efficient industries and power generation in developing world o Creates flow of funds to support green development o Allows western firms to buy offsets Question on whether it works or not Lecture 8 – Forests Forests and the Anthropocene - Changes to forest cover are a signature mark of the Anthropocene - Human re-writing the physical textures of the land - N.B. The idea of the ‘paleo-Anthropocene’ o Dating back 10 000 years o Slow but increasing deforestation with expansions of settled agriculture o Argued to have gradually altered climate Contemporary Trends - Rate of deforestation has escalated over the last 50 years - Some 46-58 thousand square miles of forest are lost each year o Equivalent to 48 football fields every minute o 15% of all greenhouse gas emissions result from this ‘land use change’ – i.e
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