anything over 120 is considered to be high Dx BG 250 mgdL DKA BG 330 mgdL SS

Anything over 120 is considered to be high dx bg 250

This preview shows page 4 - 7 out of 15 pages.

* anything over 120 is considered to be high Dx BG > 250 mg/dL DKA BG > 330 mg/dL S/S: Polyuria Polyphagia Polydipsia Dehydration Fatigue Fruity odor (breath – DKA) Kussmaul breathing Weight loss Poor wound healing Hypoglycemia Management: o Mechanism:
Image of page 4
Endocrine Notes Brain secretes growth hormone (GH) which stimulates liver Pancreas secretes glucagon which stimulates the liver Thyroid secretes thyroxine which stimulates the liver Adrenals secretes epinephrine and medulla/cortex secrete cortisone which stimulates the liver Glucagon, GH, Thyroxine, Cortisone, Epinephrine stimulate the liver to produce glucose which raise blood sugar along with muscles producing glucose as well Thyroxine and epinephrine stimulate the muscles to produce glucose o Any bloody sugar > 60 mg/dL o Dangerous condition because glucose is major source of energy for the brain o Can occur: If too much insulin is given Not enough food is eaten Excessive exercise o S/S: Shaky (tremors) Tachycardia Sweating (diaphoresis) Abnormal behavior Dizziness Hungry Visual changes Weakness HA Irritability Seizure (convulsions) Loss of consciousness Confusion Anxiety o Tx: Start with simple carbohydrate (or glucagon, if severe ), then complex carbs & proteins (cracker, peanut butter, milk) Mildly low: give carbohydrate (milk), protein snack Moderately low: give fast sugar (fruit juice, frosting), then complex carb and protein COLD AND CLAMMY NEEDS MORE CANDY!!!!!! o Glucagon Emergency Kit: Severely low: BS < 90 mg/dL AND patient is unconscious and/or possibly having seizure Treatment: Place patient on side Maintain and open airway Administer glucagon injection IM in the thigh Call 911! Hyperglycemia Management: o BS > 120 mg/dL should be considered high
Image of page 5
Endocrine Notes o Dx BS > 250 mg/dL o S/S: Polydipsia Polyuria Polyphagia Dry skin Visual changes Drowsy Nausea Kussmaul breathing o Check urine for ketones if blood sugar is > 240 mg/dL If negative, trace or small ketones are present then continue to drink clear sugar- free fluids If moderate – large ketones are present, extra fast acting insulin will need to be given o Tx: IVF Fluid Insulin Possible glucagon Possible oral medications Exercise: o Regularly o Hypoglycemic risk o Don’t’ exercise alone Nursing diagnosis for DM o Fluid volume deficit r/t blood glucose exceeding renal threshold causing glucose to spill into the urine creating an osmotic diuresis and electrolyte losses AEB thirst and increased appetite o Risk for injury r/t hypoglycemia o Deficient Knowledge (Diabetes Management) r/t care of child with newly diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus Encourage Patients to: o Maintain regular clinical visits o Self-management Check blood sugars as ordered by physician o Take all prescribed medications o Eat a healthy well balanced diet o
Image of page 6
Image of page 7

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 15 pages?

  • Spring '14
  • Roberts,CristineAnn
  • Endocrine System, blood glucose, Blood sugar

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture