Proximity things that are close together we perceive

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Proximity- things that are close together we perceive as a group 3. Continuation- lines that our brains follow 4. Common Fate- if something is happening to one item we perceive it to be happening to another Constructivism -this theory posits that we reconstruct the outside world internally -different parts of the visual cortex are devoted to detecting different categories of stimulus Alfred Yarbus: Russian scientist that examined the way we look at scenes -worked off painting “Unexpected Guest” by Repin -Fixations: pauses lasting around 100 to 200 milliseconds -Saccades: rapid movement (darting) of the fovea to adjacent areas Shortcomings: -Gestalt does not explain variations in attention among individuals constructivism does not explain why we are drawn to perceive some things and not others *Perceptual Theories two basic perceptual theories: Semiotics and Cognitive each tries to advance the explanation of our perception from the sensory theories
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Semiotics- we understand what we see as reference to something else (everything is a sign) -Three Categories: 1. Iconic- looks like what its representing, don't have to be learned 2. Indexical- direct connection but disconnected (visual representation of something else) 3. Symbolic- doesn't look like what it is representing (must be learned) Roland Barthe: chain of associations we see collections of signs as codes: Metonymic: associations (rich or poor) Analogical: comparison (this is like that) Displaced- transfer meaning (often used as sexual) Condensed- new composite (learned) Cognitive- we are attracted to notice some things and not others based on individual experience -this theory has us active in the process of visual perception Carolyn Bloomer: nine factors that effect perception memory projection expectation selectivity habituation salience dissonance culture words
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