What does antibody do Bind to a toxin and make it inactive Bind to a viruses to

What does antibody do bind to a toxin and make it

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What does antibody do?
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Cytokine production is triggered by specific receptor binding and subsequent signal transduction pathways Cytokine repertoire is dependent on cell type triggered, receptors present on that cell type. Cytokines act on cells that possess receptors for them. Play role similar to hormones (messengers of the endocrine system) Hormones usually act at a distance Cytokines act locally Play an important role in both innate and adaptive immunity Type 1 hypersensitivity: Antibody are made they travel to mast cell, mast cell binds them and when those antibodies gets stimulated the mast cells releases histamine. Its an Adaptive response that happened before, so your cell will use antibodies already there so that’s why will get this response so fast. Autoimmunity: To avoid autoimmunity is to delete bad T cells and B cells that react against proteins in your body. Low-level may be beneficial More rapid response, better to accidentally kill than miss a foreign material Self-reactive lymphocytes (B and T cells) are normally deleted Goal is immune tolerance of self More often than not autoimmunity is due to B-cell malfunction (diabetes being an exception) Genetic factors More common in women More inflammation, exchange of antigens during pregnancy, different hormones, X-chromosome inactivation Inverse relationship between infectious diseases and autoimmunity However, some diseases are associated with autoimmunity (super antigens) Exposure to chemicals, cigarette smoke Cleavage : The first cell divisions Series of mitotic divisions to subdivide egg cytoplasm and produce a multicellular organism The first cells are called blastomeres Cell Cycle During Cleavage Changes: The cleavages of early vertebrate embryos are distinct from the cell divisions that occur later in development. The early embryonic cleavages are more rapid, and the cycles consist of synthesis and division phases without gap or intervening phases Cleavage
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  • Spring '14
  • GaryL.Bowlin
  • cells

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