100%(3)3 out of 3 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 8 - 12 out of 12 pages.
What does antibody do?
•Cytokine production is triggered by specific receptor binding and subsequentsignal transduction pathways•Cytokine repertoire is dependent on cell type triggered, receptors present on that cell type.•Cytokines act on cells that possess receptors for them.•Play role similar to hormones (messengers of the endocrine system)•Hormones usually act at a distance•Cytokines act locally•Play an important role in both innate and adaptive immunityType 1 hypersensitivity:Antibody are made they travel to mast cell, mast cell binds them and when those antibodies gets stimulated the mast cells releases histamine. Its an Adaptive response that happened before, so your cell will use antibodies already there so that’s why will get this response so fast.Autoimmunity:To avoid autoimmunity is to delete bad T cells and B cells that react against proteins in yourbody.•Low-level may be beneficial•More rapid response, better to accidentally kill than miss a foreign material•Self-reactive lymphocytes (B and T cells) are normally deleted•Goal is immune tolerance of self•More often than not autoimmunity is due to B-cell malfunction (diabetes being an exception)•Genetic factors•More common in women•More inflammation, exchange of antigens during pregnancy, different hormones, X-chromosome inactivation•Inverse relationship between infectious diseases and autoimmunity•However, some diseases are associated with autoimmunity (super antigens)•Exposure to chemicals, cigarette smokeCleavage : The first cell divisions •Series of mitotic divisions to subdivide egg cytoplasm and produce a multicellular organism•The first cells are called blastomeresCell Cycle During Cleavage Changes:•The cleavages of early vertebrate embryos are distinct from the cell divisions that occur later in development.•The early embryonic cleavages are more rapid, and the cycles consist of synthesis and division phases without gap or intervening phases Cleavage