Antiretrovirals in brazil was voted in 1996 a few

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antiretrovirals in Brazil was voted in 1996, a few months after the announcement of their efficacy by David Ho at the Vancouver International AIDS Conference. This policy benefited from political consensus from right to left and was supported by President Fernando Henrique Cardoso (p.80) and his health minister, José Serra, who conducted negotiations with pharmaceutical companies to produce generic antiretrovirals.
-In South Africa the AIDS movement was initially part of the anti-apartheid struggle. However the first ANC government was not as active as it should have been in the face of an exploding HIV epidemic in the 1990s, until President Nelson Mandela addressed the nation on World AIDS Day 1998 near the end of his term. Then events took a dramatic turn in 2000 when President Thabo Mbeki questioned that HIV causes AIDS, as well as the efficacy of antiretroviral drugs. In South Africa the AIDS movement was initially part of the anti-apartheid struggle. However the first ANC government was not as active as it should have been in the face of an exploding HIV epidemic in the 1990s, until President Nelson Mandela addressed the nation on World AIDS Day 1998 near the end of his term. Then events took a dramatic turn in 2000 when President Thabo Mbeki questioned that HIV causes AIDS, as well as the efficacy of antiretroviral drugs. The refusal of President Mbeki and his government to offer treatment and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV became a unifying factor for a grand coalition. TAC—the Treatment Action Campaign, founded in 1998 by Zackie Achmat, a gay anti-apartheid activist living with HIV, and his friends—became a mass movement with tens of thousands of active members supported by an improbable coalition including scientists, trade unions, the Communist Party, churches, and even some mining companies. The movement became known abroad after thirty-nine pharmaceutical companies sued President Mandela’s government, challenging the government’s right to allow generic drugs in the country. TAC had three broad strategies for action: alliances, street action, and legal action against the state—the last being possible in South Africa, but not in many other countries on the continent.4 Thus, through a suit of the AIDS Law Project the constitutional court directed the government to provide nevirapine for the prevention of mother-to-child infection (p.81) with HIV. Its argument was that nonaccess to HIV care was contrary to the right to health of pregnant women and children expressed in the constitution. To counter the government’s refusal to import generic fluconazole—a potent drug against deadly fungal infections in people living with HIV—Achmat imported thousands of tablets of generic fluconazole from Thailand, one hundred times cheaper than the price in South Africa. TAC also collaborated with international NGOs, particularly MSF, which was a pioneer in providing antiretroviral treatment in townships near Cape Town.

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