Study Guide for Lab Exam 2.docx

What produces heart sounds what is happening in the

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What produces heart sounds? What is happening in the cardiovascular system during each heart sound? What makes heart valves open and close? What produces the sound of a heart murmur? How is blood pressure estimated using the auscultatory method? Why is this an estimate? What makes Korotkoff sounds? Why do the Korotkoff sounds correspond with systolic blood pressure? I will not give data printouts and ask you to make calculations from the graph however, you need to know the formulas and be able to perform calculations from the labs (e.g. MAP, PP, lung volumes, FEV1-3). You will not have to calculate a predicted vital capacity based on height and age. 1

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Sample Problem: The volume of air that Joe breathes in (inspiration) then out (expiration) during quiet breathing is 0.5 liters . After a quiet expiration, the maximum amount of air that Joe can inspire is 3 liters . Joe continues quiet breathing and after a quiet inspiration he breathes out as much as he possibly can and this volume is 1.5 liters. Determine the following volumes: Hint: Draw a graph of the respiratory volumes described above and label it with the volumes given. 1. Tidal volume: 2. Vital Capacity: 3. Expiratory Reserve Volume: 4. Inspiratory Capacity: Answers are at the end. 2
Here are some figures that illustrate important concepts discussed in lab: 3

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Answers to the Sample Problem: The volume of air that Joe breathes in (inspiration) then out (expiration) during quiet breathing is 0.5 liters (Tidal Volume). After a quiet expiration, the maximum amount of air that Joe can inspire is 3 liters (Inspiratory Capacity). Joe continues quiet breathing and after a quiet inspiration he breathes out as much as he possibly can and this volume is 1.5 liters (Expiratory Capacity) . Determine the following volumes: 4
1. Tidal volume: 0.5 L 2. Vital Capacity: 4.0 L VC = IRV + TV + ERV 3. Expiratory Reserve Volume: 1 L ERV = EC - TV 4. Inspiratory Capacity: 3 L 5
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