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-Who runs society?Post Luther-Social upheaval: peasants war (1524-1525)-Secular power involved-New religious ideas-Luther only beginningIdentificationsZwickau Prophets- crazy people who think god talks directly to them (luther calls fanatics)Diet of Worms95 Theses10/12/17 NotesThe World: The Power of the PressThe World-Development of print pressBefore Gutenberg-Moveable type oChina c. 1045-Oldest surviving printed bookoKorea 1377-Not used as much-Some info East to West
Johannes Gutenberg-1999 A and E: #1 person of millennium-Died in debt-Born Mainz 1400-Goldsmith and inventor-Put pieces together-Not easy: press, type, inkTo Print-1455 Gutenberg loses control to man that was financing his invention-Paper expensive-Risky venture-Often large financiers: Jean Petit, C. Plantin-Books ordered, sold in shops and by peddlersExpansion-1450s: Mainz-1460-1470: Germanies-1470-1480: Italy, France, low countries, Poland, England, Spain-1480: 110 Towns-1501: 1,000 shops-1539: Mexico CityThe Books-Bibles and Missals-Ancient classics, chivalric romance, functional-Ephemeral works-Old: look like manuscripts-New: title pages, page numbers, smallerPlace of Print-Expansion of old desires-More copies spread-What audience?Literacy-1500: 10% of men are literate-Necessary skill?-Modern vs Early modern expectations-Church, state, merchants needLearning to Read
-Age 6-7 learn to read-Age 7-8 learn to write-Many taken out of school at age 7-Historians use signature to count literacyEducational Change-16thCentury growth-More petty schools-More grammar schools (learn grammar and latin and other stuff)-More universitiesPushes for change-Renaissance= texts and education-Commerce= record keeping-The state= record keeping-The church= education and reformChanges in Books-Shorter: 50% < 15 pages-From Latin to vernacular-New audience-New purposePower of Print-Spreads knowledge -Standardizes knowledge-Permanent challenge-Harder to regulateLuther and Print-Mature printing world-Prints 95 Theses-Letter to Christian Nobility: 4,000 copies-1500-1530: 10,000 pamphlets in Germany-1530: 6M in circulation (20 per person)-Transformed WittenburgPrint Battles-Attitude to Print = attitude to Reformation-Centers of print= center of Reformation-Book burning: 1520s 400 burned in low countries-Proof of heresy, disguised books
-Luther worries about printBeyond Books-Images-Oral communication-Song-Work togetheroA Dialogue Between a Christian and a Jew 1524)Artful Reformation-Interested artists: Cranach and Durer-Profit first: Behem Brothers-Images war: Luther’s face-Lucan Cranach’s Passional Christi AntichristiPrint and Image-Luther likes images-Embedded in texts-Shift away: Zwingli and CalvinSpeaking Reformation-Debates and sermons-Luther turned to sermons-Now printed tooSinging the Word-Increase sense of closeness-Luther’s Hymns (1524)o“A Mighty Fortress is our God”o“From Heaven Above to Earth I come”-Calvin support: set psalms to musico35,000 copies two yearsProtestantism and The Word-Look to Bible-Different takes-Suspicious of images-Own words: autobiography?