Who runs society Post Luther Social upheaval peasants war 1524 1525 Secular

Who runs society post luther social upheaval peasants

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- Who runs society? Post Luther - Social upheaval: peasants war (1524-1525) - Secular power involved - New religious ideas - Luther only beginning Identifications Zwickau Prophets- crazy people who think god talks directly to them (luther calls fanatics) Diet of Worms 95 Theses 10/12/17 Notes The World: The Power of the Press The World - Development of print press Before Gutenberg - Moveable type o China c. 1045 - Oldest surviving printed book o Korea 1377 - Not used as much - Some info East to West
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Johannes Gutenberg - 1999 A and E: #1 person of millennium - Died in debt - Born Mainz 1400 - Goldsmith and inventor - Put pieces together - Not easy: press, type, ink To Print - 1455 Gutenberg loses control to man that was financing his invention - Paper expensive - Risky venture - Often large financiers: Jean Petit, C. Plantin - Books ordered, sold in shops and by peddlers Expansion - 1450s: Mainz - 1460-1470: Germanies - 1470-1480: Italy, France, low countries, Poland, England, Spain - 1480: 110 Towns - 1501: 1,000 shops - 1539: Mexico City The Books - Bibles and Missals - Ancient classics, chivalric romance, functional - Ephemeral works - Old: look like manuscripts - New: title pages, page numbers, smaller Place of Print - Expansion of old desires - More copies spread - What audience? Literacy - 1500: 10% of men are literate - Necessary skill? - Modern vs Early modern expectations - Church, state, merchants need Learning to Read
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- Age 6-7 learn to read - Age 7-8 learn to write - Many taken out of school at age 7 - Historians use signature to count literacy Educational Change - 16 th Century growth - More petty schools - More grammar schools (learn grammar and latin and other stuff) - More universities Pushes for change - Renaissance= texts and education - Commerce= record keeping - The state= record keeping - The church= education and reform Changes in Books - Shorter: 50% < 15 pages - From Latin to vernacular - New audience - New purpose Power of Print - Spreads knowledge - Standardizes knowledge - Permanent challenge - Harder to regulate Luther and Print - Mature printing world - Prints 95 Theses - Letter to Christian Nobility: 4,000 copies - 1500-1530: 10,000 pamphlets in Germany - 1530: 6M in circulation (20 per person) - Transformed Wittenburg Print Battles - Attitude to Print = attitude to Reformation - Centers of print= center of Reformation - Book burning: 1520s 400 burned in low countries - Proof of heresy, disguised books
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- Luther worries about print Beyond Books - Images - Oral communication - Song - Work together o A Dialogue Between a Christian and a Jew 1524) Artful Reformation - Interested artists: Cranach and Durer - Profit first: Behem Brothers - Images war: Luther’s face - Lucan Cranach’s Passional Christi Antichristi Print and Image - Luther likes images - Embedded in texts - Shift away: Zwingli and Calvin Speaking Reformation - Debates and sermons - Luther turned to sermons - Now printed too Singing the Word - Increase sense of closeness - Luther’s Hymns (1524) o “A Mighty Fortress is our God” o “From Heaven Above to Earth I come” - Calvin support: set psalms to music o 35,000 copies two years Protestantism and The Word - Look to Bible - Different takes - Suspicious of images - Own words: autobiography?
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