The Reformatory Movement:1. Alexander Mocanochie – He is the Superintendent of the penal colony at Norfolk Island inAustralia (1840) who introduced the “Mark System”. A system in which a prisoner is required to earn anumber of marks based on proper department, labor and study in order to entitle him for a ticket forleave or conditional release which is similar to parole.
2. Manuel Montesimos – The Director of Prisons in Valencia Spain (1835) who devided thenumber of prisoners into companies and appointed certain prisoners as petty officers in charge, whichallowed good behavior to prepare the convict for gradual release.3. Domets of France – established an agricultural colony for delinquent boys in 1839 providinghousefathers as in charge of these boys.4. Sir Evelyn Ruggles Brise – The Director of the English Prison who opened the BorstalInstitution for young offenders. The Borstal Institutionis considered as the best reform institution foryoung offenders today.5. Walter Crofton – He is the Director of the Irish Prison in 1854 who introduced the Irish systemthat was modified from the Mocanochie’s mark system.6. Zebulon Brockway – The Director of the Elmira Reformatory in New York (1876) whointroduced certain innovational programs like the following: training school type - compulsoryeducation of prisoners - casework methods - extensive use of parole - indeterminate sentence* The Elmira Reformatoryis considered forerunner of modern penology because it had all theelements of a modern system.The Two Rival Prison System in the History of Correction
shops during the day. Complete silence was enforced.ate and receive religious instructions. Complete Silence was also enforced. They are required to readthe Bible.VII. PENALTY and THE MODERN PERIOD OF CORRECTIONPENALTY is defined as the suffering inflicted by the state against an offending member for thetransgression of law.Juridical Conditions of PenaltyPunishment must be:1. Productive of suffering – without however affecting the integrity of the human personality. 2. Commensurate with the offense – different crimes must be punished with different penalties(Art. 25, RPC).3. Personal – the guilty one must be the one to be punished, no proxy.4. Legal – the consequence must be in accordance with the law.5. Equal – equal for all persons.6. Certain – no one must escape its effects.7. Correctional – changes the attitude of offenders and become law-abiding citizens.