However formalin inactivated whole cells administered intraperitoneally

However formalin inactivated whole cells administered

This preview shows page 390 - 392 out of 594 pages.

However, formalin-inactivated whole cells administered intraperitoneally achieved an RPS of 96% in sea bream (Hanif e^ al., 2005). The question about the nature of the immune response after i.p. vaccination with or without a booster after 4 weeks with an FIA-adjuvanted, inactivated, whole-cell vaccine was addressed by Arijo et al. (2004), who demonstrated a humoral response to ECPs, OMP, outer (extremely immunogenic) and cytoplasmic membranes, LPS, and O-antigen. A bivalent vaccine (with V. harveyi) based on formahsed cells and ECP adminis- tered to sole by immersion with booster or by i.p. injection led to high levels of protection (RPS = ~82%) for 4 months after which the benefit decHned (Arijo et al, 2005). A ribosomal vaccine has been evaluated following administration by i.p. injec- tion into yellowtail. Certainly, the initial evidence pointed to success with ribosomal antigen P (Kusuda et al., 1988; Ninomiya et al., 1989). In a further development, this group experimented with a potassium thiocyanate extract and acetic acid treated "naked cells" obtained from a virulent culture (Muraoka et al, 1991). Yellowtail were vaccinated twice i.p., at one week intervals with the extract (with or without the naked cells), and were challenged two weeks after the second injection. Results indicated partial success for the extract when used alone. However, the extract used in conjunction with naked cells led to good protection (RPS = 36.5). Yet, the corresponding antibody levels were low, suggesting to the researchers that humoral antibodies did not play an important role in protection (Muraoka et al, 1991). Piscirickettsiaceae representative Piscirickettsia salmonis Attempts have been made to develop a vaccine. In one study, formalised cells (10^"^TCID5o/ml) administered i.p. led to the development of good protection in a field trial with coho salmon (Smith et al., 1995). Heat-inactivated (100°C for 30min) and formalised whole-cell suspensions containing 10^ cells/ml gave commendable protection with RPS of 71 and 50%, respectively, when applied intraperitoneally in adjuvant to Atlantic salmon (Birkbeck et al., 2004). Pseudomonadaceae representatives Pseudomonas anguilli septic a Attempts have been made to develop formalin-inactivated vaccines. It is encouraging that fish are capable of eliciting an immune response against Ps. anguilliseptica, insofar as experimentally vaccinated eels developed agglutinating antibody within
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372 Bacterial Fish Pathogens 2 weeks at water temperatures of between 15 and 28°C. The maximum titre recorded was 1:256, which was reached during the 7-week period that an immune response could be detected. Although injection in Freund's adjuvant produced the highest immune response in terms of agglutinating antibodies (titre = 1:4,096), all the com- monly used vaccination techniques protected the recipient fish against experimental challenge with virulent cells (Nakai and Muroga, 1979). In field trials with batches of eels, each comprising 2,000 animals, Nakai et ai, (1982b) confirmed the efficacy of injectable heat-killed vaccine.
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