Once diagnosed with diabetes patients have found that the most difficult aspect

Once diagnosed with diabetes patients have found that

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and medication regimen or stressful events such as infections (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2017). Once diagnosed with diabetes, patients have found that the most difficult aspect of the disease is learning how to eat healthier foods. The diagnosis alone can be confusing and frightening to most when they hear the words. They are also bombarded with teaching that rarely begins to sink in for them and then are sent home with very little knowledge of what they need to do. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) states that it is imperative that patients balance their dietary intake and physical activity in order to gain control over diabetes. Since there is not one single diet idea that is synonymous for all patients the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) has outlined various foods to help patients select the healthier choices for their disease process. These foods include nonstarchy vegetables such as broccoli, carrots, greens, peppers, and tomatoes; starchy vegetables include potatoes, corn, and green peas (NIDDK, 2018). Healthy fruits include oranges, melon, berries, apples, bananas, and grapes (NIDDK, 2018). NIDDK also suggests grains such as wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal, barley, and quinoa along with lean meats and nonfat or low-fat dairy products are good choices for those afflicted with diabetes. Heart healthy fish is also recommended for those that prefer seafood (NIDDK, 2018). Patients will want to avoid foods that are fried, high in fat content, high sodium levels, sweets such as candy, baked goods, or sodas (NIDDK, 2018). Short and Long-term Impact of Diabetes The major acute, or short-term, complications of diabetes mellitus are hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome (Huether & McCance, 2017). These conditions may present as malaise, dry mouth, headache, polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, nausea, vomiting, pruritus, abdominal pain, lethargy, shortness of breath, 4
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Diabetes Kussmaul respirations, fruity or acetone odor to breath (Huether & McCance, 2017). Patients can learn to reduce these short-term effects as they learn to manage their diagnosis. Most long-term complications are associated with insulin resistance or deficit, chronic hyperglycemia (also known as glucose toxicity), accumulation of advanced glycation end products, and activation of metabolic pathways that cause tissue damage and the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus (Huether & McCance, 2017). These complications include microvascular (damage to capillaries;
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  • Summer '15
  • Diabetes, American Diabetes Association

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