Nazi euphemism for expropriating Jewish property (steal) o Hard to do in the early 1930s because of economic depression In late 1930s, Aryanization really gets started o Makes it harder for Jews to emigrate (no assets = immigration rejection) Kristallnacht: November 10, 1938 First organized violent attack on Jews in Germany and Austria o Austria has been annexed at this point Night of Crystal / Night of Broken Crystal o Now called the Night of the Pogrom of the Jews Pogrom = massacre in Russian Various groups: Hitler Youth, SS, random groups Destroyed Jewish businesses, synagogues, Jewish religious sacred objects (Torah scrolls), homes were looted o Over 200 synagogues were burned o Nearly 100 Jews were killed Nazis told groups to save Jewish archives This took place in the open, everyone knew, everyone saw Jews were arrested and sent to concentration camps because they were Jews o 100,000 “young and able-bodied” men sent to the camps o Told that if their wife/child could prove they had papers to leave, they would be released Nazi goal at this time was Jewish emmigration Any Jew who could leave, did leave o More Jews left in the last year before WWII than they did in the previous 6 years Hitler is upset about the result of Kristallnacht o Public was not happy with these results Did not like to see violence, disorder, looting in their streets Some people joined in, some opposed it Germans warned the Jews of what was going to happen Nazis realized that they needed a more centralized approach to Jewish policy o Established an office, run by Adolf Eichmann Kindertransport UK admitted 10,000 Jewish children from Germany and Austria Conceived 5 days after Kristallnacht o Approved by Parliament on November 21, 1938 Supported by broader sectors of British government and society Inspired by actions of Sir Nicholas Winston o Independently went to Czech and brough 669 Jewish children to England
Wagner-Rogers Bill (February 9, 1939) A proposed bill to admit 20,000 Jewish children under 14 to be admitted into the US o 80% of Americans opposed to increase immigration quotas The Voyage of the St. Louis About 1,000 Jewish refugees had papers to take refuge in Cuba o Cuban government changed their mind and declined their arrival Went to Florida, US declined them Went back to Germany o Some found refuge in Holland and other Western Europe These refugees were later captured once Nazi Germany began expanding Jewish people that stayed in Germany tended to be old, fragile, and/or women By 1939, 60% of German Jews had left
Phase 2: (1939-1941) Concentration and Ghettoization Invasion of Poland (September 1, 1939) Subdue Poland within a month o Blitzkrieg = advanced German war technology Division of Poland o Germany takes W Poland o USSR takes E Poland o Central Poland was declared “no man’s land” Jews were 10% of Polish population o Nazis did not know how to handle the 600,000 Jews o Reinhard Heydrick drafts an urgent memo to suggest what to do to the Jews
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- Summer '07