In each complex H from mitochondrial matrix move to intermembrane space Energy

In each complex h from mitochondrial matrix move to

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In each complex, H+ from mitochondrial matrix move to intermembrane space Energy from H+ gradient across membrane drives ATP synthesis Summary: Occurs in mitochondria Oxidative phosphorylation 26-28 ATP formed O2 final electron acceptor ETC produces NAD+, FAD, H2O Aerobic Respiration : Consumes oxygen and organic fuel as reactants Anaerobic Respiration : Uses substances other than O2 as reactants Fermentation : Breakdown of glucose in which an organic molecule is used instead of O2 Extension of glycolysis that allows for continuous generation of ATP Alcohol Fermentation : Pyruvate converted to ethanol CO2 released from pyruvate, converted to acetaldehyde (final e acceptor) NADH reduces acetaldehyde to ethanol Produces 2 ATP Lactic Acid Fermentation : Pyruvate reduced by NADH to form lactate No release of CO2, produces 2 ATP Pyruvate is final electron acceptor Photosynthesis (5) CO2 + H2O + Light Energy → C6H12O6 + O2
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Chloroplast : Site of photosynthesis in plants Mesophyll : Tissue in interior of leaf where most chloroplasts are Stomata : Microscopic pores in a leaf where CO2 and O2 enter/exit Stroma : Dense fluid inside chloroplast Thylakoids : Sacs that make up third membrane system separating stroma from thylakoid space Chlorophyll :Green pigments inside thylakoid membranes that harvests energy, and absorbs red and blue light Light Reactions- Converts solar energy to chemical energy Occurs in thylakoids 1. Photon strikes pigment molecule in Photosystems II and electron is boosted to higher energy 2. Electron jumps from pigment to pigment until it reaches P680 3. P680 gets excited and electron is transferred to Primary Electron Acceptor 4. Water splits and electrons go to excited PEA, H+ is released in thylakoid space 5. ETC passes electron to PSI, transfer provides energy for ATP 6. Light energy transferred to pigments in PSI until reaches P700 7. P700 gets excited and electrons transferred to PEA 8. ETC passes electrons to NADP+ reductase which makes NADPH Calvin Cycle- uses ATP and NADPH to convert CO2 to G3P 1. Carbon Fixation : Initial incorporation of CO2 from air into organic molecules present in chloroplast a. Rubisco catalyzes attachment of CO2 to 5C RuBP to make 6C intermediate that immediately splits into two 3C molecules (3-phosphoglycerate) 2. Reduction- Each 3C molecule is given P group by ATP to become 1, 3-bisphosphate a. 1, 3-bisphosphate is reduced by NADPH to make G3P 3. Regeneration of RuBP- Series of reactions that uses 3 ATP to rearrange G3P to 3 molecules of RuBP Makes 6 ATP, 6 NADPH, 6 G3P, 1 G3P per every 3 molecules CO2
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Unit 3 Signal Transduction (5) Hydrophilic Molecule Receptors 1. G Protein-Coupled a. Ligand binds to extracellular side of receptor to activate it and change its shape b. Inactive G protein with GDP attached binds to cytoplasmic side of receptor, GTP replaces GDP to activate G protein c. Active G protein binds to membrane enzyme to alter it and trigger next step 2. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase a.
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