In each complex, H+ from mitochondrial matrix move to intermembrane space ○ Energy from H+ gradient across membrane drives ATP synthesis Summary: ● Occurs in mitochondria ● Oxidative phosphorylation ● 26-28 ATP formed ● O2 final electron acceptor ● ETC produces NAD+, FAD, H2O Aerobic Respiration : Consumes oxygen and organic fuel as reactants Anaerobic Respiration : Uses substances other than O2 as reactants ● Fermentation : Breakdown of glucose in which an organic molecule is used instead of O2 ○ Extension of glycolysis that allows for continuous generation of ATP ○ Alcohol Fermentation : Pyruvate converted to ethanol ■ CO2 released from pyruvate, converted to acetaldehyde (final e acceptor) ■ NADH reduces acetaldehyde to ethanol ■ Produces 2 ATP ○ Lactic Acid Fermentation : Pyruvate reduced by NADH to form lactate ■ No release of CO2, produces 2 ATP ■ Pyruvate is final electron acceptor Photosynthesis (5) CO2 + H2O + Light Energy → C6H12O6 + O2
Chloroplast : Site of photosynthesis in plants ● Mesophyll : Tissue in interior of leaf where most chloroplasts are ● Stomata : Microscopic pores in a leaf where CO2 and O2 enter/exit ● Stroma : Dense fluid inside chloroplast ● Thylakoids : Sacs that make up third membrane system separating stroma from thylakoid space ● Chlorophyll :Green pigments inside thylakoid membranes that harvests energy, and absorbs red and blue light Light Reactions- Converts solar energy to chemical energy ● Occurs in thylakoids 1. Photon strikes pigment molecule in Photosystems II and electron is boosted to higher energy 2. Electron jumps from pigment to pigment until it reaches P680 3. P680 gets excited and electron is transferred to Primary Electron Acceptor 4. Water splits and electrons go to excited PEA, H+ is released in thylakoid space 5. ETC passes electron to PSI, transfer provides energy for ATP 6. Light energy transferred to pigments in PSI until reaches P700 7. P700 gets excited and electrons transferred to PEA 8. ETC passes electrons to NADP+ reductase which makes NADPH Calvin Cycle- uses ATP and NADPH to convert CO2 to G3P 1. Carbon Fixation : Initial incorporation of CO2 from air into organic molecules present in chloroplast a. Rubisco catalyzes attachment of CO2 to 5C RuBP to make 6C intermediate that immediately splits into two 3C molecules (3-phosphoglycerate) 2. Reduction- Each 3C molecule is given P group by ATP to become 1, 3-bisphosphate a. 1, 3-bisphosphate is reduced by NADPH to make G3P 3. Regeneration of RuBP- Series of reactions that uses 3 ATP to rearrange G3P to 3 molecules of RuBP ● Makes 6 ATP, 6 NADPH, 6 G3P, 1 G3P per every 3 molecules CO2
Unit 3 Signal Transduction (5) Hydrophilic Molecule Receptors 1. G Protein-Coupled a. Ligand binds to extracellular side of receptor to activate it and change its shape b. Inactive G protein with GDP attached binds to cytoplasmic side of receptor, GTP replaces GDP to activate G protein c. Active G protein binds to membrane enzyme to alter it and trigger next step 2. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase a.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 20 pages?