The number of bacteria resistant to antibiotics has

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• The number of bacteria resistant to antibiotics has increased tremendously in the last decade Repeated and improper use of antibiotics = reason for the increase in drug-resistant bacteria. • Decreasing inappropriate antibiotic use is the best way to control resistance. • Consequences = longer-lasting illnesses, more doctor visits or extended hospital stays and the need for more expensive and toxic medications.
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Selecting for antibiotic drug resistance 31
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32 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics - penicillins and cephalosporins HA-MRSA (hospital-acquired) occurs most frequently among people in hospitals and health care facilities who are older and have weakened immune systems. CA-MRSA (community-acquired) causes infection in people outside of hospitals and healthcare settings. Many of these people are young and otherwise healthy.
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33 Journal of the American Medical Association estimated that MRSA would have been responsible for 94,360 serious infections and associated with 18,650 hospital stay-related deaths in the United States in 2005. http://www2a.cdc.gov/podcasts/player.asp?f=6936 CA-MRSA infections generally start as small painful red bumps that look like pimples or boils. These bumps can turn into deep, painful abscesses that require surgical drainage. CA-MRSA produces toxins that cause a great deal of redness, pain, and inflammation.
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34 MRSA- Staph aureus Staph aureus bacterium
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35 CA MRSA skin lesion Baby with Staph skin infection
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36 An Emerging Epidemic Community-acquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA MRSA) People not hospitalized in the past year Easily transmitted at athletic facilities, prison, schools Rapid increase in # of cases worldwide from 2000-2007 Resistant to many antibiotics Very “aggressive” strain Unique strain
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37 Diep, B. A. et. al. Ann Intern Med 2008;148:249-257 Incidence of MRSA Staph aureus in San Francisco by Zip Code % of couples that are male, same-sex Density of MRSA- Staph aureus infections Castro District
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