White american women n ¼ 123 715 1 men n ¼ 229 016

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White American Women ( n ¼ 150) 21 14 1.23 .715 1 Men ( n ¼ 155) 45 39 2.29 .016 4 9.36 .045 ORs for probable pathological gambling could not be calculated in women due to low frequency of response. Luczak and Wall April 2016 199
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moderation and restraint and disapproves of excessive behavior in general 22 ; thus, it is possible that Chinese and Korean Americans may have greater awareness of their gambling behaviors being in excess or causing problems, or may consider gambling behaviors as problematic at a lower level of engagement compared with White Americans (see Tang et al.). 32 In the current study, being born in the US was not related to lifetime gambling problems. Additional research on US samples is needed to understand the complex relationship that cultural values as well as changes in these values over time have on gambling behavior. Gender differences in rates of gambling problems were found in all three ethnic groups, with the ratio of problems ranging from 1.5 in Chinese, 2.0 in Korean, and 2.7 in White Americans. Studies in Taiwan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Australia, and the United States report similar higher rates of gambling problems in men compared with women. 7,8,21,30,33 35 When combined, only 2% of our total sample of women had probable pathological gambling compared with 8% of men, consistent with previous reports on US college students that found 2% of women and 10% of men had probable pathological gambling, 10,24 and with gender differences for gambling in young adults in general. 33 Problem Gambling and Drinking Associations Our results provide evidence for the comorbidity of gambling problems and AUDs in all ethnic groups, despite differences in rates of AUDs and gambling problems across groups. As anticipated from our report examining alcohol dependence in a subset of this sample, 15 Chinese had lower rates of AUDs compared with Koreans and Whites. Novel to this report, our results indicate having an AUD was more strongly associated with gambling problems in Chinese men than in Korean and White American men. Chinese men with an AUD were over 11 times likely to have a gambling problem and over 13 times more likely to have probable pathological gambling than Chinese men without an AUD. This fi nding is inconsistent with the substitution hypothesis to explain high rates of gambling problems in Chinese. 21,22 Chinese men were not substituting gambling problems for AUDs, but instead had very high overlap of these addictive behaviors. This fi nding is more consistent with a model of general addiction and problem behavior theory and with the generalizability of overlapping genetic propensity for these disorders. 2,4,5,17 Our fi ndings in Korean men that having an AUD was associated with about a threefold higher risk for subthreshold gambling problems, but not with probable pathological gambling problems indicates a different relationship between alcohol and gambling problems than in Chinese men. Heavy and problem drinking are more common in Korean men compared with Chinese men, 23 so having an AUD may be more indicative of a stronger
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  • Fall '17
  • White American, Problem gambling, South Oaks Gambling Screen

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