A consensus view would be that serogroup Ol has dominated both in the number of

A consensus view would be that serogroup ol has

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A consensus view would be that serogroup Ol has dominated both in the number of isolates available for study and the relative importance to fish pathology (Austin et al, 1995a; Pedersen et al, 1996a, c). The homogeneity of serogroup Ol has been established (Austin et al, 1995a), yet data have pointed to variabiHty among isolates. For example, after studying 75 isolates of serogroup Ol, 8 plasmid profiles—with one predominating—and 6 ribotypes were recognised (Skov et al., 1995). An even larger examination of 103 isolates of serogroup Ol recognised 15 plasmid profiles (Pedersen and Larsen, 1995). PFGE had high discriminatory power, recognising 35 profiles. It is a personal view that isolates of serogroup 02 have seemed to be more aggressive than serogroup Ol. Serogroup 02, which has been subdivided into
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140 Bacterial Fish Pathogens serogroup 02a and 02b, has revealed heterogeneity in LPS profiles—6 different profiles have been recognised among 129 isolates (Tiainen et ai, 1997). By western blotting and slide agglutination, four different patterns have emerged. By comparing LPS profiling, western blotting and slide agglutination, 9 different groupings were formed (Tiainen et al, 1997). A view was expressed that additional subgroups within serogroup 02 remain to be described (Tiainen et ai, 1997). V. cholerae (non-Ol) During the summer of 1977, an epizootic occurred in a wild population of ayu in the River Amano, Japan. From diseased animals, an organism conforming to the description of V. cholerae was isolated (Muroga et ai, 1979; Kiiyukia et ai, 1992). Subsequently, V. cholerae was associated with a disease of goldfish in Australia (Reddacliff e^ (3/., 1993). Vibrio cholerae Cultures comprise small (1.5-3.0 x 0.7-1.0 |im in size). Gram-negative, fermenta- tive rods, which are motile by single polar flagella. Growth occurs in 0-6% (w/v) sodium chloride, at 10-42°C, and at pH 7-10. Catalase, P-galactosidase, indole, lysine decarboxylase and oxidase are produced, but not arginine dihydrolase, H2S, ornithine decarboxylase or phenylalanine deaminase. Aesculin, blood (haemo- lysis), chitin, gelatin, lipids and starch, but not urea, are degraded. The methyl red test and Voges Proskauer reaction are positive. Nitrates are reduced. Citrate, fructose, galactose, glucose, maltose, sucrose and tartrate are utiHsed, but not adonitol, arabinose, cellobiose, dulcitol, inositol, inulin, malonate, mannose, mele- zitose, melibiose, raffinose, rhamnose, salicin, sorbitol or xylose. Acid is produced from sucrose, but not lactose. Growth occurs at 37°C and in 0%, but not 7% (w/v), sodium chloride. Sensitivity is recorded to the vibriostatic agent, 0/129. The G + C ratio of the DNA is 47-49 mol % (Muroga et ai, 1979; Yamanoi et ai, 1980; Kiiyukia et ai, 1992). The phenotypic traits published by Muroga et al. (1979) and Kiiyukia et al. (1992) were in close agreement with the description of V. cholerae (Farmer III et al., 2005). Indeed, there were only two discrepancies with the characteristics of the "El Tor" biotype, i.e. production of ornithine decarboxylase and utiHsation of mannose (these were reported as negative for the fish-pathogenic isolates). However, the fish
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