162). Allusion in particular is heavily used by Lincoln, especially of the Bible, because the Americans were a religious people. Lincoln appeals to ethos indirectly by bringing to light the efforts of insurgents which were geared towards watering down what our Founding Fathers envisioned, claiming that, insurgents “would rend the Union even by war” (Lincoln 1). Here he is communicating that the Union is in the right side of what our Founding Fathers envisioned and thus his administration and that of the Union bears credibility. Lincoln hopes for the war to come to an end, so that he can concentrate on urging the north to forgive the south and a united nation can be born in the end. He appeals to pathos in the third paragraph, by preparing the north and the south mentally toforgive the actions of either side as they were both basing their actions on the same ideals. He says that, “Both read the same Bible and pray to the same God, and each invokes His aid against the other. It may seem strange that any men should dare to ask a just God's assistance in wringing
Last name6their bread from the sweat of other men's faces, but let us judge not, that we be not judged. The prayers of both could not be answered” (Lincoln 1). Here, he brings about the aspect of forgiveness without judging as both parties grounded their actions to their individual beliefs and thus there is no need for judgement but rather reconciliation should win the day in the end.Comparative AnalysisBoth speeches from Abraham Lincoln display a proper organization of ideas and efforts to contain the emotions of the masses. Both speeches appear to have been written well in advance and carefully thought out to ensure that they did not cause unnecessary unrest, during a period when tensions were high. Abraham Lincoln uses a unifying language in both speeches, through unifying terms such as “fellow countrymen” and collective terms, “we,” “us” and “our” to show solidarity with the masses. Appeals to ethos and pathos have been made in both speeches. Lincoln avoids singling out any side for condemnation, but instead in concerned about the unity and survival of the nation. Both speeches are short, going by the standards of speeches in the 1860s, showing that Lincoln was considerate and acknowledged that the masses did not care much for long self-righteous speeches, but rather, they were looking for a trustworthy leaderthat would lead them, drawing inspiration from what our Founding Fathers envisioned.
Last name7Works CitedLincoln, Abraham. The Gettysburg address. Penguin UK, 2009.Lincoln, Abraham. "Abraham Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address." Presidency (1860): 1st.Selzer, Jack. "Rhetorical analysis: Understanding how texts persuade readers." What writing does and how it does it: An introduction to analyzing texts and textual practices (2004): 279-307.