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73 26 product focused examples product focused

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73-26 Product-Focused Examples Product-Focused Examples © 1995 Corel Corp. Light Bulbs (Discrete) Paper (Continuous) © 1984-1994 T/Maker Co. © 1995 Corel Corp. Soft Drinks (Continuous, then Discrete) Mass Flu Shots (Discrete) © 1995 Corel Corp.
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73-27 Flow Diagram Showing the Steelmaking Flow Diagram Showing the Steelmaking Process at NUCOR Process at NUCOR
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73-28 A Comparison (1) A Comparison (1) Process Focus (Low volume, High variety) Repetitive Focus (Modular) Product focus (High-volume, low-variety) Mass Customization (High-volume, high-variety 1. Small quantity, large variety of products Long runs, standardized product, from modules Large quantity, small variety of products Large quantity, large variety of products 2. General purpose equipment Special equipment aids in use of assembly line Special purpose equipment Rapid changeover on flexible equipment
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73-29 A Comparison (2) A Comparison (2) Process Focus Repetitive Focus Product focus Mass Customization 3 Broadly skilled operators Modestly trained employees Operators less broadly skilled Flexible operators trained for customization 4 Many instructions because of change in jobs Reduced training and number of job instructions Few work orders and job instructions Custom orders require many instructions 5 Raw material high relative to product value JIT techniques used Raw material low relative to product value Raw material low relative to product value
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73-30 A Comparison (3) A Comparison (3) Process Focus Repetitive Focus Product focus Mass Customization 6 WIP high relative to output JIT techniques used WIP low relative to output WIP driven down by JIT, kanban, lean production 7 Units move slowly thru plant Movement measured in hours & days Units move swiftly thru facility Goods move swiftly thru facility 8 Finished goods made to order, not stored Finished goods made to frequent forecasts Finished goods made to forecast, then stored Finished goods made to order
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73-31 A Comparison (4) A Comparison (4) Process Focus Repetitive Focus Product focus Mass Customization 9 Scheduling complex and concerned with trade-off between inventory, capacity, and customer service Scheduling based on building models from a variety of forecasts Scheduling relatively simple, concerns establishing sufficient rate of output to meet forecasts Scheduling sophisticated to accommodate customization 10 Fixed costs low, variable costs high Fixed costs dependent on flexibility of facilities Fixed costs high, variable costs low Fixed costs high; variable costs must be low
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73-32 A Comparison (5) A Comparison (5) Process Focus Repetitive Focus Product focus Mass Customization 11 Costing, done by job, is estimated prior to doing job but only known after doing job Costs usually known based on experience Because of high fixed costs, cost dependent on utilization of capacity High fixed costs and dynamic variable costs
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73-33 Process Continuum Process Continuum Process Focused (intermittent process) Repetitive Focus (assembly line) Product Focused (continuous process) Continuum High variety, low volume Low utilization (5% - 25%) General-purpose equipment Low variety, high volume High utilization (70% - 90%) Specialized equipment Modular Flexible equipment
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73-34 Volume and Variety of Products
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