The Concrete Operational Stage7 to 11 Years The Formal Operational

The concrete operational stage7 to 11 years the

This preview shows page 25 - 31 out of 31 pages.

The Concrete-Operational Stage(7 to 11 Years) The Formal-Operational Stage (11-12 Years and Beyond) Skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning, and systematic planning emerge during this stage. Ecological settings strongly influenced theseabilities Not all cultures value formal operational thinking
Image of page 25
Characteristics of Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Although thetiming may vary, thesequenceof the stages does not. Universal (not culturally specific) Generalizable : the representational and logical operations available to thechild should extend to all kinds of concepts and content knowledge Hierarchical natureof stage sequences (each successivestage incorporates elements of previous stages, but is moredifferentiated and integrated) Stages represent qualitative differences in modes of thinking, not merely quantitativedifferences
Image of page 26
CognitiveDevelopment in Early Adulthood Formal Operational Thinking Represents highest level of cognitive development Piaget did not propose further development in early adulthood This notion was challenged Labouvie-Vief (1986) suggested thinking in adulthood changes to meet demands of environment Sugested “post-formal operational development”
Image of page 27
CognitiveDevelopment in Early Adulthood “post-formal operational development” Highest cognitive skill in this stage is Dialectical Thinking For every viewpoint thereis an opposing viewpoint and thesetwo can beconsidered simultaneously Theability to solvecontradictions Not clear whether this ability is shaped by culture
Image of page 28
CognitiveDevelopment in Middle& Later Adulthood Difficult to study cognitivedevelopment in mid-later adulthood dueto confounding factors Age Life Experiences Wecan examinecognitivechanges during this developmental period by looking at concepts Fluid Intelligence Crystalized Intelligence
Image of page 29
CognitiveDevelopment in Middle& Later Adulthood Fluid Intelligence : Refers to heability to reason quickly, think abstractly, problem-solving, learning, and pattern recognition. This typeof intelligencetends to decline during late adulthood. How can you apply this concept across cultures? Weneed to understand how different cultures value “processing speed”, types of knowledge, and experiences (wisdom)
Image of page 30
CognitiveDevelopment in Middle& Later Adulthood Crystallized intelligence is possibly moreamenableto change(i.e., tend to improve) as it relies on specific, acquired knowledge. Crystallized intelligence is based on stored knowledge and experience For example, a child who has just learned how to recitethe fifty states of America now owns a new pieceof crystallized intelligence "the extent to which a person has absorbed thecontent of culture.”
Image of page 31

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 31 pages?

  • Spring '08
  • Ngo
  • Psychology, Trigraph, lopm nt, Piage C Vygotsky, diffe nt

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture