The Concrete-Operational Stage(7 to 11 Years) – The Formal-Operational Stage (11-12 Years and Beyond) • Skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning, and systematic planning emerge during this stage. • Ecological settings strongly influenced theseabilities • Not all cultures value formal operational thinking
Characteristics of Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development • Although thetiming may vary, thesequenceof the stages does not. • Universal (not culturally specific) • Generalizable : the representational and logical operations available to thechild should extend to all kinds of concepts and content knowledge • Hierarchical natureof stage sequences (each successivestage incorporates elements of previous stages, but is moredifferentiated and integrated) • Stages represent qualitative differences in modes of thinking, not merely quantitativedifferences
CognitiveDevelopment in Early Adulthood • Formal Operational Thinking – Represents highest level of cognitive development – Piaget did not propose further development in early adulthood • This notion was challenged – Labouvie-Vief (1986) suggested thinking in adulthood changes to meet demands of environment – Sugested “post-formal operational development”
CognitiveDevelopment in Early Adulthood “post-formal operational development” • Highest cognitive skill in this stage is Dialectical Thinking – For every viewpoint thereis an opposing viewpoint and thesetwo can beconsidered simultaneously – Theability to solvecontradictions – Not clear whether this ability is shaped by culture
CognitiveDevelopment in Middle& Later Adulthood • Difficult to study cognitivedevelopment in mid-later adulthood dueto confounding factors – Age – Life Experiences • Wecan examinecognitivechanges during this developmental period by looking at concepts – Fluid Intelligence – Crystalized Intelligence
CognitiveDevelopment in Middle& Later Adulthood • Fluid Intelligence : Refers to heability to reason quickly, think abstractly, problem-solving, learning, and pattern recognition. – This typeof intelligencetends to decline during late adulthood. • How can you apply this concept across cultures? • Weneed to understand how different cultures value “processing speed”, types of knowledge, and experiences (wisdom)
CognitiveDevelopment in Middle& Later Adulthood • Crystallized intelligence is possibly moreamenableto change(i.e., tend to improve) as it relies on specific, acquired knowledge. • Crystallized intelligence is based on stored knowledge and experience – For example, a child who has just learned how to recitethe fifty states of America now owns a new pieceof crystallized intelligence • "the extent to which a person has absorbed thecontent of culture.”
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- Spring '08
- Psychology, Trigraph, lopm nt, Piage C Vygotsky, diffe nt