Sulfonylureas Hypoglycemia hematologic effects nausea epigastric fullness

Sulfonylureas hypoglycemia hematologic effects nausea

This preview shows page 6 - 9 out of 11 pages.

SulfonylureasHypoglycemia, hematologic effects, nausea, epigastric fullness, heartburn, many othersGlinidesHeadache, hypoglycemic effects, dizziness, weight gain, joint pain, upper respiratory infection or flulike symptomsOral Antidiabetic Drugs: Adverse Effects (cont’d)ThiazolidinedionesModerate weight gain, edema, mild anemia Hepatic toxicity—monitor alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels
Background image
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitorsFlatulence, diarrhea, abdominal painDo not cause hypoglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, or weight gainOral Antidiabetic Drugs: Adverse Effects (cont’d)Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors Upper respiratory tract infection, headache, and diarrheaHypoglycemia can occur and is more common if used in conjunction with a sulfonylureaInjectable Antidiabetic Drugs Amylin agonistspramlintide (Symlin)Incretin mimeticsexenatide (Byetta)liraglutide (Victoza) Injectable Antidiabetic Drugs: Mechanism of Action (cont’d)Amylin agonistMimics the natural hormone amylinSlows gastric emptyingSuppresses glucagon secretion, reducing hepatic glucose outputCentrally modulates appetite and satietyUsed when other drugs have not achieved adequate glucose controlSubcutaneous injectionInjectable Antidiabetic Drugs: Mechanism of Action (cont’d)Incretin mimeticMimics the incretin hormonesEnhances glucose-driven insulin secretion from beta cells of the pancreasOnly used for type 2 diabetesExenatide: Injection pen deviceInjectable Antidiabetic Drugs: Adverse Effects Amylin agonist Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, headacheIncretin mimeticsNausea, vomiting, and diarrheaRare cases of hemorrhagic or necrotizing pancreatitis Weight lossHypoglycemiaAbnormally low blood glucose level (below 50 mg/dL)Mild cases can be treated with diet—higher intake of protein and lower intake of carbohydrates—to prevent rebound postprandial hypoglycemia
Background image
Hypoglycemia SymptomsEarlyConfusion, irritability, tremor, sweatingLateHypothermia, seizuresComa and death will occur if not treatedGlucose-Elevating DrugsOral forms of concentrated glucoseBuccal tablets, semisolid gel50% dextrose in water (D50W)GlucagonNursing ImplicationsBefore giving drugs that alter glucose levels, obtain and document:A thorough historyVital signsBlood glucose level, A1C levelPotential complications and drug interactionsNursing Implications (cont’d)Before giving drugs that alter glucose levels:Assess the patient’s ability to consume foodAssess for nausea or vomitingHypoglycemia may be a problem if antidiabetic drugs are given and the patient does not eatIf a patient is NPO for a test or procedure, consult primary care provider to clarify orders for antidiabetic drug therapyNursing Implications (cont’d)Keep in mind that overall concerns for any patient with diabetes increase when the patient:Is under stressHas an infectionHas an illness or traumaIs pregnant or lactating
Background image
Image of page 9

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 11 pages?

  • Fall '16
  • Dr. Sandra Laird
  • blood glucose

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes