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compared to the 120 passages that were anti-catholic. Furthermore, they pointed out that Rizal retracted his ‘attacks’ on the Catholic Church before he was executed. They maintained that Filipinos could still venerate him as a national hero even without reading the two novels and that Filipino students could read other works done by Rizal instead of the two Novels. The Catholic Church’ opposition went up to the extent of threatening religious sanctions to all the supporters of the law. A bishop wrote a letter to Rafael Palma a biographer of Rizal, saying that “we prohibit under the pain of sin and canonical sanctions the reading, keeping or retention of the same [Noli and El Fili] whether in original or in translation in the Archdiocese of Manila and Cebu.” Read the full text of the CBCP’s statement opposing the Rizal Law in the following website: Among the prominent ‘defenders’ of Rizal Law was Sen. Claro M. Recto who was the author of the law and fought hard for its passage despite the threat of losing votes and religious sanctions. He assailed the people who opposed the law by saying that fighting against the law is like fighting Rizal and attempting to “blot out his memory”. The supporters of the bill maintained that law would uplift Filipino sense of identity and nationalism especially during that time when Filipino sense of identity and nationalism was dwindling and the prevalence of American neocolonialism in the Philippines. After long and divisive debates, the Rizal Law was passed with certain provisions that served as compromise between two opposing sides. One of these compromises is the exemption given to those who feel that their faith is damaged by reading of Rizal’s novels provided, that they file a sworn statement stating as such as stated in Sec. 1o f the Rizal Law. III. Historical Background of the 19thCentury: Spain and Philippines Jose Rizal’s ideas and philosophies in life could be better understood in the context of his time. The historical context of Jose Rizal allows us to see the prevailing social, economic, political and cultural conditions of Spanish colonial regime in the Philippines and how these influenced Rizal.
X.XModule Title 4 Conditions in Spain During the first three quarters of the 19thcentury, Spain has been in turmoil especially when it was conquered by France. When the monarchy was restored in 1814, Fernando VII returned to absolutism [absolute power is vested in the monarch e.i. the king]. When he died he passed his crown to his infant daughter Isabel, under the regency [ a government or period in which a person /regent rules in place of the king/queen] of her mother Maria Cristina. Civil war broke out when Don Carlos, the king’s younger brother was claiming the throne. As a result, revolts between the Liberals (supporters of Maria Cristina) and Carlists (supporters of Don Carlos) ensued. In 1886, when Isabella became queen, a revolution against her took place and she was forced to abdicate. Alfonso XII of Spain became king, which finally brought Spain into a period of stability and reform.