Friendships Friendship voluntary relationship of two people involving mutual

Friendships friendship voluntary relationship of two

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FriendshipsFriendship: voluntary relationship of two people involving mutual likingPreschoolers: choose based on common interests and getting along well8-to-11: above, plus psychological characteristics (e.g., trust, helpfulness)Adolescents: above, plus loyalty/intimacy Fear humiliation if friends are disloyalIntimacy especially crucial for girls
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Who Are Friends?Opposites attract? Or birds of a feather?Friends tend to be similar in age, of same-sex, and from the same race or ethnic groupLatter less true if children’s schools or neighborhoods are ethnically diverseCross-group friendships help majority group children form more positive attitudes toward a minorityFriends have similar interests, attitudes toward school, recreational pursuits, future plans, and drug use
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Quality and Consequences of FriendshipsNot all childhood friendships lastChildren benefit from goodfriendshipsHigher self-esteem Less likely to be lonely or depressed Act more prosociallyBetter cope with stressesRisks of friendshipsToo much co-rumination: discussing personal problemsReinforce each other’s aggressiveness and risky behaviors (drinking, smoking, etc.)
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GroupsClique: small group of child or adolescent friends similar in attitudes, sex, race, and ageCrowd: larger mixed-sex group of older children with similar attitudes and valuesCrowds vary in statusChildren of parents who are: Authoritative join crowds endorsing adult behavioral standardsNeglectful or permissive join crowds disavowing these standards
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Group StructureDominance hierarchy: groups with a leader to whom others deferBoys: physical power determines who leadsGirls and older boys: having the best skills to fulfill group’s purpose determines who leadsBeing outgoing and having good ideas qualifies one to lead class projectsHaving camping experience qualifies one to lead at summer camps
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Peer PressurePeer pressure: pressure to conform to group normsNot always bad, and not all-powerful!Most powerful when: Youth are younger and socially anxiousPeers are friends and/or of high statusBehavioral standards are ambiguousCan have both positive and negative effects
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Popularity and RejectionMost children in elementary school fit fairly neatly into one of five categoriesPopular: most classmates like childRejected: most classmates dislike childControversial: classmates are divided; some like and others dislike childAverage: are liked and disliked by some classmates, but with lower intensity than above categoriesNeglected: many classmates ignore the child
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Popularity and RejectionMost research examines “popular” and “rejected” groups – two subtypes of eachPopular: non-aggressiveOften skilled academically and sociallyPopular: aggressiveBoys: physical aggressionGirls: relational aggression (*video*)Rejected: aggressive, hyperactive, low social skills, low emotion regulationRejected: shy, withdrawn, timid, lonely
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  • Fall '14
  • Blumenthal,EmilyJeanne

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