Friendships•Friendship: voluntary relationship of two people involving mutual liking–Preschoolers: choose based on common interests and getting along well–8-to-11: above, plus psychological characteristics (e.g., trust, helpfulness)–Adolescents: above, plus loyalty/intimacy •Fear humiliation if friends are disloyal•Intimacy especially crucial for girls
Who Are Friends?•Opposites attract? Or birds of a feather?•Friends tend to be similar in age, of same-sex, and from the same race or ethnic group–Latter less true if children’s schools or neighborhoods are ethnically diverse–Cross-group friendships help majority group children form more positive attitudes toward a minority•Friends have similar interests, attitudes toward school, recreational pursuits, future plans, and drug use
Quality and Consequences of Friendships•Not all childhood friendships last•Children benefit from goodfriendships–Higher self-esteem –Less likely to be lonely or depressed –Act more prosocially–Better cope with stresses•Risks of friendships–Too much co-rumination: discussing personal problems–Reinforce each other’s aggressiveness and risky behaviors (drinking, smoking, etc.)
Groups•Clique: small group of child or adolescent friends similar in attitudes, sex, race, and age•Crowd: larger mixed-sex group of older children with similar attitudes and values–Crowds vary in status•Children of parents who are: –Authoritative join crowds endorsing adult behavioral standards–Neglectful or permissive join crowds disavowing these standards
Group Structure•Dominance hierarchy: groups with a leader to whom others defer•Boys: physical power determines who leads•Girls and older boys: having the best skills to fulfill group’s purpose determines who leads–Being outgoing and having good ideas qualifies one to lead class projects–Having camping experience qualifies one to lead at summer camps
Peer Pressure•Peer pressure: pressure to conform to group norms–Not always bad, and not all-powerful!•Most powerful when: –Youth are younger and socially anxious–Peers are friends and/or of high status–Behavioral standards are ambiguous•Can have both positive and negative effects
Popularity and Rejection•Most children in elementary school fit fairly neatly into one of five categories–Popular: most classmates like child–Rejected: most classmates dislike child–Controversial: classmates are divided; some like and others dislike child–Average: are liked and disliked by some classmates, but with lower intensity than above categories–Neglected: many classmates ignore the child
Popularity and Rejection•Most research examines “popular” and “rejected” groups – two subtypes of each•Popular: non-aggressive–Often skilled academically and socially•Popular: aggressive–Boys: physical aggression–Girls: relational aggression (*video*)•Rejected: aggressive, hyperactive, low social skills, low emotion regulation•Rejected: shy, withdrawn, timid, lonely
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- Fall '14