Q32 a theory is either true or false galileos

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Q32: A theory is either true or false. Galileo’s observations of Jupiter’s satellites showed that the Ptolemaic theory of the motion of celestial bodies is false. Therefore, since the Copernican theory of planetary motion is inconsistent with the Ptolemaic account, Galileo’s observations of Jupiter’s satellites proved the truth of the Copernican theory. The argument above is open to the objection that it makes the questionable assumption that A. whoever first observed something inconsistent with the truth of the Ptolemaic theory should be credited with having proved that theory false B. there are some possible observations that would be inconsistent with the account given by the Copernican theory but consistent with the account given by the Ptolemaic theory C. the Ptolemaic and Copernican theories, being inconsistent, cannot both be based on exactly the same evidence D. numerous counterexamples were necessary in order to show the Ptolemaic theory to be false E. the Ptolemaic and Copernican theories, being inconsistent, cannot both be false 29
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Answer: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Q33 to Q36: (This passage is excerpted from material published in 1997.) Whereas United States eco- nomic productivity grew at an annual rate of 3 percent from 1945 to 1965, Line it has grown at an annual rate of (5) only about 1 percent since the early 1970’s. What might be preventing higher productivity growth? Clearly, the manufacturing sector of the economy cannot be blamed. Since (10) 1980, productivity improvements in manufacturing have moved the United States from a position of acute decline in manufacturing to one of world prominence. (15) Manufacturing, however, consti- tutes a relatively small proportion of the economy. In 1992, goods- producing businesses employed only 19.1 percent of American (20) workers, whereas service-producing businesses employed 70 percent. Although the service sector has grown since the late 1970’s, its productivity growth has declined. (25) Several explanations have been offered for this decline and for the discrepancy in productivity growth between the manufacturing and service sectors. One is that tra- (30) ditional measures fail to reflect service-sector productivity growth because it has been concentrated in improved quality of services. Yet traditional measures of manu- (35) facturing productivity have shown significant increases despite the undermeasurement of quality, whereas service productivity has continued to stagnate. Others argue (40) that since the 1970’s, manufacturing workers, faced with strong foreign 30
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competition, have learned to work more efficiently in order to keep their jobs in the United States, but service (45) workers, who are typically under less global competitive pressure, have not. However, the pressure on manufacturing workers in the United States to work more efficiently has (50) generally been overstated, often for political reasons. In fact, while some manufacturing jobs have been lost due to foreign competition, many more have been lost simply because (55) of slow growth in demand for manu- factured goods.
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