# The sample standard deviation generally displayed by

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The sample standard deviation (generally displayed by S) calculates the variability of data in a sample. c.) The means are roughly the same for both meaning that the basic average size (mean) doesn’t differ much for a governor or a CEO. However there is a significant difference in the standard deviations. It might have happened since the CEOs have more independence in selecting their desks while governors have some limitations. 21. Payne (2001) gave participants a computerized task in which they first see a face & then a picture of either a gun or a tool. The task was to press one button if it was a tool & a different one if it was a gun. Unknown to the participants while they were doing the study, the faces served as a “prime” (something that starts you thinking a particular way); half the time they were of a black person & half the time of a white person. Table 2–9 shows the means & standard deviations for reaction times (the time to decide if the picture is of a gun or a tool) after either a black or white prime. (In Experiment 2, participants were told to decide as fast as possible.) Explain the results to a person whohas never had a course in statistics. (Be sure to explain some specific numbers as well as the general principle of the mean & standard deviation.)
black prime. In reality, the response time for ‘Tool’ after the black prime was offered was biggest in both experiments displaying that the members were least anticipating the tool’s photo after a black individual's photo. In experiment 2 the mean reduced since the members had to push button as quickly as possible to view how a reduced reaction time would influence the research. Standard deviation indicates the variability of response times in a particular group. This also reduced in second experiment. The main difference was just of a few milliseconds between means for various groups for both experiments, which means they were capable to recognize gun or tool in nearly same time whether the last photo shown was black or white individual. Therefore, the prime in this study had hardly any influence on the general result.