Branding and trade mark service pre sale and after

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Branding and trade mark. Service, pre-sale and after-sale. New products PLACE VARIABELS Channels of distribution, types of intermediates, channel policy and design, location of outlets, channel remuneration and dealer-principal relations. Physical distribution, transportation, warehousing, inventory, levels, order processing etc. Annamalai University
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69 PRICE VARIABLES Pricing policies, level of prices, level of margins, discounts and rebates. Terms of delivery, payment terms, credit terms and instalment facilities. Resale price maintenance. PROMOTION VARIABLES Personal selling, objects, level of effort, quality of sales force, cost level, level of motivation. Advertising, media mix, budgets, alloctions and programmes. Sales promotional efforts, display, contests, trade promotions. Publicity and public relations. In addition to the marketing mix variables described above, the marketing manager of any firm handles another set of variables viz., Behavioural/Environmental variables. As the same indicates, these variables are constituted by the behavioural or environmental forces that are external to the enterprise. This set of variables too can be classified under four heads: Customer variables Competition variables Trade variables Environmental variables There are several sub-variables under each of the Bahaviour/Environmental variables. They are presented below: CUSTOMER VARIABLES Number of customers Location of the customer Purchasing power of the customers Buying behviour Habit of purchase Personality traits and attitudes Lifestyles and needs COMPETITION VARIABLES Structure of the industry. Nature and intensity and competition Product and services offered by the competitions. Number of competitors, their size, capacity and territory of operation. Competitors’ sales levels in each market segment / product. Competitor’s strengths and weakness. Competition from substitute products. Annamalai University
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