4. Although Jackson received nationwide support, no candidate received an absolute majority in the electoral college, so members of the House of Representatives had to choose the president.5. Clay assembled a coalition of congressmen that voted for Adams, and Adams repaid Clay by appointing him secretary of state. As a congressman, Clay had promoted the American System, an integrated program of national economic development.
6. Clay’s appointment was a politically fatal mistake for both men; Calhoun accused Adams of using “the power and patronage of the Executive” to thwart the popular will and Jacksonians in Congress condemned Clay for arranging this “corrupt bargain.”C. The Last Notable President: John Quincy Adams1. Adams embraced the American System proposed by Clay: protective tariffs, federally subsidized transportation improvements, and a national bank.2. Adams’s policies favored the business elite of the Northeast and the entrepreneurs and commercial farmers in the Midwest but won little support among southern planters and smallholding farmers.3. Congress approved only a few of Adams’s proposals for internal improvements, such as a short extension of the National Road.4. The most far-reaching battle of the Adams administration came over tariffs; Adams’s Tariff of 1824 protected manufacturers in New England and Pennsylvania against imports of more expensive woolen and cotton textiles as well as iron goods.5. Disregarding southern opposition, northern Jacksonians joined with the supporters of Adams and Clay to enact the Tariff of 1828, which raised duties on raw materials, textiles, and iron goods.6. The new tariff enraged the South; as the world’s cheapest producer of raw cotton, the tariff cost southern planters about $100 million a year as planters had to buy either higher-cost American textiles and iron goods or highly taxed British goods.7. Southerners felt the tariff was legalized pillage and labeled it a “Tariff of Abominations.” D. “The Democracy” and the Election of 18281. Southerners refused to support Adams’s bid for a second term: most were offended that he supported the land rights of Indians and blamed him for the new tariff.2. Adams’s primary weakness was his increasingly out-of-date political style; for example, he felt that the country should ask for his services.3. Martin Van Buren and the professional politicians handling Andrew Jackson’s campaign had no reservations about “running” for the presidency.4. Jacksonians initially called themselves “Democratic Republicans” but eventually became simply “Democrats,” and their name conveyed their message that through them the middling majority—the democracy—would rule.5. Jackson’s appeal as a candidate was his message of equal rights and popular rule, his hostility to business corporations and to Clay’s American System, his animus toward Native Americans, and his personal preference for a “judicious” tariff.