Oil on canvas 43 1 1 67 3 3 alte nationalgalerie

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Oil on canvas, 4311× 6733". Alte Nationalgalerie, Berlin, Germany
38INTRODUCTIONsurvives even without the intervention ofchurches and religious leaders. Knowing thatFriedrich’s works usually contained religiousmeaning, one can see the spiritual qualitycreated by the lighting in the painting. Uponcloser inspection, it is clear that the landscapeis covered with crosses marking burial sites,and a procession of people can be seen in thesnow. Even though the religious structure isgone, people still come to worship. Because ofhis beliefs, Friedrich has infused the cold wintryscene with spiritual light.Formal AnalysisFinally, since art communicates with the viewerthrough vision, we should introduce brieflyhow examining the arrangement of the visualelements and principles of an artwork helps usto analyse its content.For example, the formal elements mightinclude color, shape, the surfacetexture(perhaps rough or smooth), and so on. It isworth pointing out that form has anothermeaning in art: it describes an artwork that canbe defined in three dimensions (height, width,and depth). For the purposes of understandingformal analysis, however, we are concerned herewith form in the sense of understanding the useof the formal elements in an artwork.When we communicate in writing or speech,our communication consists of a vocabularyof individual words that are structured byrules of grammar that enable us to determinemeaning. Similarly, in art, the elements (likevocabulary) are organized by the principles (thevisual equivalent of grammar). In Part 1 of thisbook we will examine in depth the elements andprinciples of art: color; form; line; mass; motionand time; shape; space; texture; value; volume.In addition, we will discuss the principles:balance; contrast; emphasis; focal point; pattern;proportion; rhythm; scale; unity; variety.Artists can utilize the elements and principlesin many ways to communicate ideas, emotions,beliefs, social or political convictions, andsensations, visually: in fact there is almost nolimit to what an artist can achieve by combiningcreative imagination with the elements andprinciples of art.A brief formal analysis of a painting byBritish artist David Hockney (b. 1937) willshow us how he used the visual languageof the elements and principles to create anapparently simple artwork that in fact reflectson and expresses important events and complexemotions that were unresolved in his life at thetime (0.0.23).Hockney had visited Los Angeles for the firsttime in 1964, where he lived in the HollywoodHills. He was fascinated by the colors, the sun,and the landscape of the city, so different fromhis native Yorkshire in the north of England.Color plays an important part in this painting,as it did in all of Hockney’s Los Angeles works.

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Ai Weiwei, Simon Rodia

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