Research methods in brain research-Split brainsOrganization of the Nervous System-Include the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system-Central nervous systemincludes the brain and spinal cord-Peripheral nervous systemincludes the somatic system and the autonomic system (which includes the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems)-Somatic systeminteracts with the external environment-Autonomic systemregulates the internal environment
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-Sympathetic systemcontrols ‘fight or flight’ instinct; ex. Pupils enlarge stimulates sweat glands, accelerates heartrate, inhibits digestion -Parasympathetic systemcontrols the ‘rest and digest’ processes; ex. Constricts pupils, stimulates tear glands, slows heartbeat, activates digestion*refer to figure 4.2 in textbookBrain Anatomy-Cerebrum: the uppermost portion of the brain, which regulates higher cognitive functions and emotional functions-Sulci: valleys in the brainCentral Fissure: between the frontal and the parietal lobesSylvian Fissure: between the parietal and temporal lobes and frontal and temporal lobesParieto-occipital Sulcus: between the parietal and occipital lobes-Why so convoluted?Increases surface area; more surface area the more possible connections; limited space in skull-Cerebral hemispheres:Right Hemisphere: Left Hemisphere:Longitudinal Fissure: in between the two hemispheres; connecting tissue between is called the corpus callosum, which is a thick band of nerve fibres joining the leftand right hemispheres and allows for inter-hemispheric communication-Frontal Lobe: upper front of the brain-Parietal Lobe: upper back of the brain-Temporal Lobe: bottom front of the brain-Occipital Lobe: bottom back of the brain-The eight cranial bones protecting our brains are the frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones.-Sections/planes of the brain include: coronal (vertical short), sagittal (vertical long), horizontal.-Cerebral Cortex: the outer layer of the cerebrum, approx. 3mm thick-Primary Visual Cortex: where information is received from your eyes-Primary Auditory Cortex:involved in comprehending spoken language, as well as a variety of auditory input-Primary Somatosensory Cortex:involved in processing bodily sensations; particular parts of the body are connected to particular parts of this cortex-Primary Motor Cortex:involved in controlling movement different parts are again devoted to different parts of the body/ motor functions-Contralateral Control: the left half of the brain controls the right half of the body, and vice versa-Prefrontal Cortex: associated with higher cognitive functions such as self-awareness, planning and decision making, creativity, abstract reasoning, executive control, personality; damage can result in major changes in personality, social behavior, ability to plan, impulsivity, etc.
-Locating verbal behavior in the brain- aphasias; comprehension-Wernicke’s area/superior temporal lobe; production- Broca’s area/inferior temporal lobe-Subcortical Structures:
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