Research methods in brain research Split brains Organization of the Nervous

Research methods in brain research split brains

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Research methods in brain research - Split brains Organization of the Nervous System - Include the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system - Central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord - Peripheral nervous system includes the somatic system and the autonomic system (which includes the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems) - Somatic system interacts with the external environment - Autonomic system regulates the internal environment
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- Sympathetic system controls ‘fight or flight’ instinct; ex. Pupils enlarge stimulates sweat glands, accelerates heartrate, inhibits digestion - Parasympathetic system controls the ‘rest and digest’ processes; ex. Constricts pupils, stimulates tear glands, slows heartbeat, activates digestion *refer to figure 4.2 in textbook Brain Anatomy - Cerebrum : the uppermost portion of the brain, which regulates higher cognitive functions and emotional functions - Sulci : valleys in the brain Central Fissure: between the frontal and the parietal lobes Sylvian Fissure: between the parietal and temporal lobes and frontal and temporal lobes Parieto-occipital Sulcus: between the parietal and occipital lobes - Why so convoluted? Increases surface area; more surface area the more possible connections; limited space in skull - Cerebral hemispheres: Right Hemisphere: Left Hemisphere: Longitudinal Fissure: in between the two hemispheres; connecting tissue between is called the corpus callosum, which is a thick band of nerve fibres joining the left and right hemispheres and allows for inter-hemispheric communication - Frontal Lobe: upper front of the brain - Parietal Lobe: upper back of the brain - Temporal Lobe: bottom front of the brain - Occipital Lobe: bottom back of the brain - The eight cranial bones protecting our brains are the frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones. - Sections/planes of the brain include: coronal (vertical short), sagittal (vertical long), horizontal. - Cerebral Cortex: the outer layer of the cerebrum, approx. 3mm thick - Primary Visual Cortex: where information is received from your eyes - Primary Auditory Cortex: involved in comprehending spoken language, as well as a variety of auditory input - Primary Somatosensory Cortex: involved in processing bodily sensations; particular parts of the body are connected to particular parts of this cortex - Primary Motor Cortex: involved in controlling movement different parts are again devoted to different parts of the body/ motor functions - Contralateral Control: the left half of the brain controls the right half of the body, and vice versa - Prefrontal Cortex: associated with higher cognitive functions such as self-awareness, planning and decision making, creativity, abstract reasoning, executive control, personality; damage can result in major changes in personality, social behavior, ability to plan, impulsivity, etc.
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- Locating verbal behavior in the brain- aphasias; comprehension-Wernicke’s area/superior temporal lobe; production- Broca’s area/inferior temporal lobe - Subcortical Structures:
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