Cells are small to increase surface area folds add

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Cells are small to increase surface area (folds add more surface) If they were big waste builds up and hard for food to get in 2. Name and explain the 2 major events that are thought to have occurred in the endosymbiotic theory/endosymbiosis. Outer cell membrane folded in and organelles got stuck engulfed - another cell became stuck on another cell and became an organelle (mito) 3. What does the endosymbiosis explain in terms of evolution? How prokaryotic cells became more complex and evolved into eukaryotic 4. What are the two most common molecules that make up the cell membrane? Proteins Phospholipids 5. How are phospholipids aligned in a membrane? Two rows tails facing each other heads facing out 6. The plasma membrane called selectively permeable. What does this mean? Plasma membrane allows some material to pass through it while on the same time it blocks other material from entering through it… In other words its selects materials that can enter the cell… that`s the reason it is called as selectively permeable membrane.
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7. Which type of transport moves molecules against the concentration gradient and requires ATP? Active transport 8. Which direction do molecules move during diffusion (think concentration gradient) and does it require energy? Higher to lower no energy 9. What process could be used to move many molecules at once or a large object such as a prokaryotic cell/cell piece into a cell? What about moving the same things out of a cell? Permeable membrane 10. What is housed in the nucleus? DNA 11. What are the functions of the following structures: rough endoplasmic reticulum (why is it called rough), golgi apparatus, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, cytoskeleton, lysosomes, ribosomes and the mitochondria. Rough Endoplasmic- makes proteins,RNA ribosomes reading=proteins Golgi apparatus-post office take in molecules and ship them to where they belong Smooth endoplasmic reticulum-makes lipids Cytoskeleton-allows cell shape helps move shit Lysosomes- inside cell digestion, bacterium to break them down Ribosomes- read to make protein can do 3 bases at one time, codes for amino acids (codon 3 letter word for amino acids) AUG is start Mitochondria- makes energy with folds (cellular rep) 12. Which concept is supported by the mitochondria’s structure? Explain. Engulfing Chapter 3 – Metabolism: 1. What is the energy currency of a cell? ATP 2. Where is most of the energy stored to do work in this molecule? Name the molecule and the bond. 3. About how much ATP does aerobic metabolism make per glucose molecule? Fermentation (called anaerobic respiration in your textbook) per glucose molecule? 1 molecule=32 ATP 4. What two places in the cell does cellular respiration take place? Where does fermentation take place?
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Cytoplasm (fermentation) and mitochondria 5. What are the 4 major steps we studied in cellular respiration?
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